Luận văn Motivation in Learning English Speaking of the Second Year Tourism-Major Students at Tourism and Foreign Language Department, Sao Do College of Industry

67 students (55.83% of the population) were selected at random to take part in the research. The ratio of boy student to girl student is 15/67 (The percentage of boy student to girl student is 22.38% of the student population). Almost of them came from Northern provinces of Vietnam. The majority of the population is from the countryside.

The average score of English they got in the entrnace exam ranges from 5 to 7. These students had at least 3 years of learning English at high schools where the extensive vocabulary and grammatical structures are the main focus. During the fist year at SCI they finished 90 periods of General English which focuses on developing 4 skills: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Thus, they are supposed to have an intermediate level of proficiency in English, they have sound knowledge of Grammar, and to some extent are able to speak in English.

Six teachers (31.50 % of the population) who had been teaching English speaking skills (using the text book ESP designed by the teachers of English Division in Tourism and foreign languages Department, SCI) at least for one year were invited to join in the research. Their average age is 26. These are the six teachers who are teaching English speaking in the school year 2008-2009 when the study was being carried out.

 

doc46 trang | Chia sẻ: maiphuongdc | Ngày: 25/10/2013 | Lượt xem: 4808 | Lượt tải: 55download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Luận văn Motivation in Learning English Speaking of the Second Year Tourism-Major Students at Tourism and Foreign Language Department, Sao Do College of Industry, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
nguage in a variety of contexts and places great emphasis on learning language functions. Unlike the ALM, its primary focus is on helping learners create meaning rather than helping them develop perfectly grammatical structures or acquire native-like pronunciation. This means that successfully learning a foreign language is assessed in terms of how well learners have developed their communicative competence, which can loosely be defined as their ability to apply knowledge of both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of a language with adequate proficiency to communicate. CLT is usually characterized as a broad approach to teaching, rather than as a teaching method with a clearly defined set of classroom practices. As such, it is most often defined as a list of general principles or features. One of the most recognized of These lists are David Nunan’s (1991) five features of CLT: 1. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language. 2. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation. 3. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself. 4. An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning. 5.  An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities Outside the classroom. These five features are claimed by practitioners of CLT to show that they are very interested in the needs and desires of their learners as well as the connection between the language as it is taught in their class and as it used outside the classroom. Under this broad umbrella definition, any teaching practice that helps students develop their communicative competence in an authentic context is deemed an acceptable and beneficial form of instruction. Thus, in the classroom CLT often takes the form of pair and group work requiring negotiation and cooperation between learners, fluency-based activities that encourage learners to develop their confidence, role-plays in which students practice and develop language functions, as well as judicious use of grammar and pronunciation focused activities. 2.2.3 Aspects of speaking skills in CLT class. 2.2.3.1 Teaching interactional skills In the light of CLT approach, the goal of language study is to communicate competently in that language. Richard, Platt and Weber (1985), (replicated in Nuna., 1999) characterize four dimensions of communicative competences as follows: - Knowledge of the Grammar and Vocabulary of the language - Knowledge of the rules of speaking (e.g. knowing how to begin and end conversations, knowing what topics can be talked about in different types of speech events, knowing which address forms should be used with different persons one speak to and in different situations; - Knowing how to use and respond to different types of speech acts such as requests, apologies, thanks, and invitations; - Knowing how to use language appropriately. Nunan, D., 1999, p.226 Accordingly, in the speaking class, teachers need provide their students with interactional skill, for example, how to open and close conversations, how to make turns and interrupt, and how to respond appropriately, ect. 2.2.3.2 Integrating pronunciation teaching For many teachers and students, pronunciation is one of the most difficult areas because of mother tongue interfere and feelings of awkwardness, inhibition, embarrassment, fear or losing face. Hedge, T. (2000) claims that it is teachers’ responsibility to decide when to focus on pronunciation, and on which aspects. It is now agreed that in CLT class, pronunciation can be integrated into speaking lessons, either through activities which prepare for speaking tasks or through follow-up activities. Individual sounds, words stress, sentence stress, and various types of linking can be drawn out of many classroom activities. Likewise, intonation can be picked out from dialogues in textbook materials to show students its importance in indicating attitudes and emotion in conversation. 2.2.3.3 Accuracy and fluency According to Hedge, T. (2000:261), “as communicative approaches have developed, teachers have been concerned to ensure that students not only practice speaking in a controlled way in order to produce features of pronunciation, vocabulary, and structure accurately, but also practice using these features more freely in purposeful communication”. Teachers will therefore need to design both accuracy-based and fluency based activities. * Accuracy: When we say someone speaks English with accuracy, we mean they speak English without or with few errors in grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. Grammar: The student uses correct word order, tenses, agreement, etc. The student does not leave out articles, prepositions, or difficult tenses. Vocabulary: the student has a range of vocabulary that corresponds to the syllabus year list and uses words you have taught the student uses a wide range of vocabulary. Pronunciation: When the student speaks most people will understand. The message that the student is trying to get across is clear because of good pronunciation. * Fluency: Fluently speaking means being able to communicate one's ideas without having to stop and think too much about what one is saying. Lack of undue hesitation: the student speaks smoothly, at a natural speed. She doesn't hesitate long and it is easy to follow what she is saying. Length: the student can put ideas together to form a message or an argument; she can make not only the simplest of sentence patterns but also complex ones to complete the task. Independence: when the student is lost for a word or cannot express an idea in English, she finds a way around the problem, re-expressing what she wants to say in | a different or simpler way. The student can keep talking and asks questions, etc. to keep the conversation going. She is independent of the teacher. The student does not give up trying when she cannot find the right word. The student does not let the conversation break down or is not dependent on others to keep talking. 2.2.4 Principles of teaching speaking The teaching of speaking is closely bound up with receptive skill work. They feed off each other in a number of ways: Output and input: when students produce a piece of language, feedback from their interlocutor will act as input based on that they modify their output. Such input can come from the teacher as feedback or prompters. Texts: texts offer students a model to follow, especially when they are working on specific functions of language like agreeing, apologizing, refusing, and so on. Texts can also act as stimuli as a lot of language production grows out of texts that we see or hear. A controversial reading passage may be the springboard for a discussion. (Listening to a tape in which speakers tell a story or opinion may provide necessary I stimuli for students to respond based on their own experience. Reception as part of production: in many situations, production can only continue in combination with the practice of receptive skills. Thus conversation between two people is a blend of listening and speaking; comprehension of what is said is necessary for what the participant says next. Production enables reception: when students try to speak in certain situations or within certain genres, they are better attuned to understanding other people speaking in the same context. In this case, oral production works in a way that helps students with their listening comprehension. (Harmer, 2001) To motivate students in English speaking lessons, it is suggested that the below principles should be apllied. - Give students practice with both fluency and accuracy: Communicating effectively in a language requires both the knowledge of the language as well as the ability to use tine language in real time interaction. Thus, the teacher should provide students with form-focused speaking, meaning-focused I speaking and activities that aim at fluency development. (Brown & Nation, 1997) - Plan communicative tasks that are based on the concept of information gap In all too many English classes, teacher pupil exchanges have little communicative (value because there is no real information being exchanged. In a traditional, grammar oriented class, for example, teachers often spend a large proportion of class time asking questions for which they and the students already know the answers; thus, there is no information gap to fill. Typically, a teacher asks a "display" question (that is, a question the teacher knows the answer to), an individual student answers, the teacher evaluates or corrects the answer, and then the cycle begins again with another student and another question that everyone already knows the answer to (Liao, 2001). - Provide opportunities for students to talk by using group work or pair work, and limiting teacher talk Research has repeatedly demonstrated that teachers do approximately 50 to 80 percent of the talking time in classrooms. Using pair or group work will help increase the amount of time that learners get to speak in the target language. Moreover, with teachers removed from the conversation, learners can take up roles normally filled by teachers (e.g. posing questions, asking for clarification) - Plan tasks that involve negotiation of meaning Research suggests that learners make progress by communicating in the target language because interaction necessarily involves trying to understand and make yourself understood. This process is called negotiation of meaning which involves checking to see if you've understood what someone has said, clarifying your understanding and confirming that someone has understood you. By asking for clarification, repetition, or explanation during conversation, learners get those they are speaking with to address them with language at the level they can learn from and understand. - Design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking. Interactional speech is communicating with, someone for social purposes. It includes both establishing and maintaining social relationships. Transactional speech involves communicating to get something done, including the exchange of goods and or service. Conversations are relatively unpredictable and can range over many topics with participants taking turns and commenting freely while transactional encounters of a fairly restricted kind, in contrast, will usually contain highly predictable patterns (e.g. telephoning for a taxi). Interactional speech is much more unpredictable than transactional speech. Speaking activities in classroom thus need to embody both types since learners will have to speak the target language in both interactional and transactional settings. 2.2.5. Classroom activities 2.2.5.1 Communicative drills A communicative drill is "one in which the type of response is controlled but the student provides his or her own content or information" (Richard, Plart, and Platt, 1992, p.223). In communicative drills the teacher controls the learners' speech primarily by ensuring that they produce short utterances. Here are three suggestions: 1. Practical situations: Students can practice requesting and providing information such as asking for directions in a city and ordering meals in a restaurant. 2. Guessing games: Students can do guessing games in pairs or groups. There are many variations. For example, one student chooses a famous person, and the others ask yes-no questions until the identity of the person is determined. Or, one student draws a picture of a fruit or object and turns it over on the desk; the partner guesses what the item is by asking, "Do you have a...?" until the correct answer is found. ‘Another variation is for the teacher to provide a short, incomplete story plot for students to discuss and guess’s the way it ends. 3. Information gathering activity involves conducting surveys, interviews and searches in which students were required to use their language to collect information. Students can practice a set of structures and language repeatedly but in a meaningful way. 4. Jigsaw activity: in a jigsaw activity, each partner lias one or a few pieces of the "puzzle," and the partners must cooperate to fill all the pieces into a whole picture. 2.2.5.2 Communicative activities In real life, conversation takes place before people have some information that they want to get across. Speaking activities in classroom that aim at communicative therefore should satisfy the following criteria (Harmer, ibid): - Speaker should have a desire to communicate. - Speakers should have a purpose to communicate. - They should attend to content not form. - They should use a variety of language structures. - The teacher will not intervene to stop the activity and there is no control on what specific language forms should be used. Here are three examples of communicative activities that provide practice speaking in a social context 1. A Role-play involves the teacher giving role cards to students for pair work. In the following role-play, paired students are asked to provide sustained speech for specific purpose of persuading each other-without causing offense. Three characteristics for role-plays to work out by Ken Jones (in Harmer, ibid, p.274) - Reality of function: student must not think of themselves as real participant in the situation - A simulated environment: a classroom is thought of as a social place - Structure: students must see how the activity is constructed and be given necessary information to carry out simulation effectively. Harmer (ibid) also suggests that the teacher should create the right kind environment for such activity. We need to give clear instruction and make sure that students know what they need to do. Using role cards is a good support especially! For students at lower levels as cards help they remember their role. A whole class brainstorming can be helpful as well to help them predict what vocabulary, grammar, and idiomatic expressions they might use. Finally, design follow-up activities whose focus can be either on the content (what they get out of tine activity or language (feedback on pronunciation and grammar problems the teacher catch or both. 2. A discussion activity: students are given a topic that usually provokes more than one opinion. Students are asked to discuss the issue in group and give their opinion and the reasons why they think so. One of the reasons why discussion fails is that students are reluctant to give opinion in front of the whole class, particularly when they have nothing to say and are not confident of the language they may use to say it. "Buzz group" can help teachers avoid such difficulty. Students will have chance to quickly share their ideas within small group and in many way rehearse the language to express the ideas before they are asked to speak in public. 3. An Opinion sharing activity involves identifying and articulating a personal end, feeling, or attitude. The activity may require using factual information, nulating arguments, and justifying one's opinions. For some topics, there may be 3 right or wrong responses and no reason to expect the same answers or responses (different individuals or different groups. For example, the teacher divides the students into several groups that will discuss or describe a common object from different activities. After all groups finish, the teacher asks the groups to report to the rest of the class. 4. A reasoning gap activity involves deriving some new information from given information through the process of inference or deduction and the perception of relationships or patterns. The activities necessarily involve comprehending and eying information. For example, working out a teacher's time table on the basis of given class timetables. ' 5. Prepared talks: a popular kind of activity in which students make a presentation on the topic of their own choice with or without agreement with the teacher. Such talks are not designed for spontaneous conversation and more "writing-like". Prepared talks represent a defined and useful genre of speaking and if properly organized, can be interesting for both listeners and speakers. 2.3 Summary In summary, the chapter has reviewed different view points on motivation in general and particularly focused on foreign language learning motivation. The two main types of motivation in foreign language learning motivation which are integrative and instrumental are investigated. The chapter has also reviewed the main de-motivating factors affecting students’ motivation in learning process as well as the characteristics of motivated learners. Besides, the characteristics of the teaching of speaking, its principles and classroom activities are presented. The following chapter intends to display the methodology of the study. Chapter 3: Methodology The issues which have been mentioned in the literature review are only the theoretical matters. To illustrate the theory, in this chapter the description of the study design and methodology employed are presented. 3.1 An overview of the current situation of learning and teaching English speaking at Tourism and Foreign Language Department, Sao Do College of Industry. Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty of SIC now has 17 English teachers aged between 25 to 45. Six of them are working toward an M.A degree and the rest hold a B.A degree in English language teaching. Five of them have been completed the short-term English (for) Tourism course. 6 of the teachers have been teaching English speaking for at least 3 years. However, during the teaching process, there are no common ways for all the teachers to motivate their students in teaching process. The number of the students entering the school anually ranges from 120 to 150. Entering school they have to pass the entrance exam of English, Math, and Literature. They are supposed to have the intermidiate level of English. Most of the students have good proficiency of English, however, their speaking ability is still limited. The course book used for teaching speaking is designed by the teachers of the English Division. The course book is task-based designed. The objectives of the course book is to provide students with necessary words, structures about the tourist destinations, and help them be able to talk about the tourist destinations in English. In that context, how to motivate the students to speak English need to be paid attention to by all of the teachers in the English Division. 3.2 Research questions The study is seeking the answers to five questions below 1. What are the types of motivation possessed by the 2nd year tourism major students in learning speaking? 2. What have the teachers done to motivate their students in speaking learning? 3. What are the factors de-motivating their students in learning speaking? 4. What motivational strategies and techniques can be applied to speaking lessons? 3.3 The research approach To find answers to the research questions, the study collects data from survey questionnaires, classroom observation and interview. 3.4. Participants 67 students (55.83% of the population) were selected at random to take part in the research. The ratio of boy student to girl student is 15/67 (The percentage of boy student to girl student is 22.38% of the student population). Almost of them came from Northern provinces of Vietnam. The majority of the population is from the countryside. The average score of English they got in the entrnace exam ranges from 5 to 7. These students had at least 3 years of learning English at high schools where the extensive vocabulary and grammatical structures are the main focus. During the fist year at SCI they finished 90 periods of General English which focuses on developing 4 skills: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Thus, they are supposed to have an intermediate level of proficiency in English, they have sound knowledge of Grammar, and to some extent are able to speak in English. Six teachers (31.50 % of the population) who had been teaching English speaking skills (using the text book ESP designed by the teachers of English Division in Tourism and foreign languages Department, SCI) at least for one year were invited to join in the research. Their average age is 26. These are the six teachers who are teaching English speaking in the school year 2008-2009 when the study was being carried out. Instruments: The study employed 4 main instruments below: 1. The questionnaire for the students. The questionnaire was adapted from the questionnaire designed by Rajit Kumar (1996) in Research Methodology. It was conducted in Vietnamese. The questionnaire was designed with 2 main parts. Part 1 was to get students’ information about their gender, age, place of birth, the duration they have learnt English. Part 2 was designed to elicit students’ opinions on English speaking and their opinions on factors motivating students in English speaking learning. The part includes 7 questions, 6 of which are closed questions, one is open-ended question. The purpose of the questionnaire is to obtain a snapshot of students’ motivation in learning English speaking and of their comments on the speaking class and their expectations on the textbooks as well as the teachers. 2. The questionnaire for the teachers The questionnaire was adapted from the questionnaire designed by Rajit Kumar (1996) in Research Methodology. It was conducted in English. The questionnaire was designed with 3 main parts. The first part is to get personal information about the teachers (gender, age, teaching experiences) The second part is designed with 6 questions about the things need to be done to motivate students (the techniques, activates, teaching aids, the difficulties in teaching…) The third part is to get the teachers’ comment on the textbooks. 3. The interview To get students’ opinions on English learning, the difficulties they have in English speaking learning, their opinions of the textbooks used for teaching, a one to one interview was conducted with 2 students after each classroom observation. The interview consisted of 10 questions. The interview was carried out in Vietnamese in the form of an informal conversation between the researcher and the student. 4. Observation It was a non-participant observation in which the researcher watched, followed and recorded activities as they were performed in the real classroom settings. The observation was carried out in the second semester of the school year 2008-2009, the class performance was observed in two classes in Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty. Each class performance lasted three periods (total 135 minutes). Teachers have taken notes on the activities of the class. 3.6 Data collection procedures The time for data collection lasted during the third month of the second semester of the school year 2008-2009. Because it was the time when students completed 2 third of the term. Students may have an overview on the difficulties of English speaking in the second year at the SIC. During the first two weeks, the classroom performance by the 4 teachers was observed. The detailed notes were kept and interpreted, and then the conclusions were drawn out. Two students were chosen by chance after each classroom observation to join in the interview. Before the interview began the researcher explained the interviewees the purpose of the interview and the amount of time to complete the conversation. The interview was constructed with 10 open-ended questions in a predetermined order. Each interview lasted for 20 to 25 minutes. The data were recorded, transcribed and then translated in English. The next week, the survey to the teachers was delivered to 6 teachers teaching English speaking skills for the 2nd year tourism major students, the time for them to complete it was 4 days. The last week, the questionnaires were delivered to 67 tourism major second year students. The students had 15 minutes to complete the questionnaire. The purpose and importance of the study were explained. While students were completing the questionnaires, any questions were clarified by the teacher. Chapter 4: Data analysis and findings The chapter will present the data analysis and the discussion of the findings. 4. 1 Types of motivation students have in English speaking learning. Research question 1: What types of motivation students have in learning? The types of motivation possessed by the students will be discussed in question 1. The teacher focused on the 2 main types of motivation which are integrative and instrumental motivation in English speaking learning. Table 3: The students’ reasons for lea

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • docNoi dung chinh luan van.doc
Tài liệu liên quan