Tiếng anh 11- Bài tập Gerund and the Infinitive

3. Một số cách dùng đặc biệt

 Một số động từ có thể đi cùng với cả động từ nguyên thể và V-ing, hãy so sánh

sự khác nhau về ý nghĩa giữa chúng:

Stop + V-ing: dừng làm gì

Stop making noise! (dừng làm ồn)

Stop + to V: dừng để làm gì

I stop to smoke (tôi dừng lại để hút thuốc)

Remember/forget/regret + to V: nhớ/quên/tiếc sẽ phải làm gì (ở hiện tại

và tương lai)

Remember to send this letter (hãy nhớ gửi bức thư này).

Don’t forget to buy flowers (đừng quên mua hoa đấy)

I regret to inform you that the train was canceled (tôi rất tiếc phải báo tin

cho anh rằng chuyến tầu đã bị hủy bỏ)

Remember/forget/regret + V-ing: nhớ/quên/tiếc đã làm gì (ở quá khứ).

I paid her $2. I still remember that. I still remember paying her $2 (tôi nhớ

đã trả cô ấy 2 đô la).

She will never forget meeting the Queen (cô ấy không bao giờ quên lần

gặp nữ hoàng)

He regrets leaving school early. It is the biggest mistake in his life.

Try + to V: cố gắng làm gì

I try to pass the exam. (tôi cố gắng vượt qua kì thi)

Try + V-ing: thử làm gì

You should try unlocking the door with this key (bạn nên thử mở cửa với

chiếc khóa này).

Like + V-ing: thích làm gì vì nó thú vị, hay, cuốn hút, làm để thưởng thức

I like watching TV.

Like + to V: làm việc đó vì nó là tốt và cần thiết.

I want to have a job. I like to learn English.

Would like + to V: mời ai đi đâu

Would you like to go to the cinema?

Prefer + doing something + to + doing something else.

I prefer driving to travelling by train.

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1 Chuyên đề: THE GERUND AND THE INFINITIVE I. MỤC ĐÍCH CHUYÊN ĐỀ - Cung cấp cho học sinh cách sử dụng chính xác trong cấu trúc câu khi hai động từ đi cùng nhau. - Giúp học sinh làm dạng bài chia động từ một cách chính dạng khi hiểu được sự khác nhau trong cách dùng động từ nguyên thể và động từ đuôi -ing. II. KIẾN THỨC CƠ BẢN 1. The gerund (động từ đuôi -ing) 1.1. Cách sử dụng  Là chủ ngữ của câu: dancing bored him  Bổ ngữ của động từ: her hobby is painting  Là bổ ngữ: seeing is believing  Sau giới từ: he was accused of smuggling  Sau một vài động từ: avoid, mind, enjoy......... 1.2. Một số cách dùng đặc biệt a. Verb + V-ing  Những động từ sau được theo sau bởi V-ing: admit, avoid, delay, enjoy, excuse, consider, deny, finish, imagine, forgive, keep, mind, miss, postpone, practise, resist, risk, stop, remember, forget, regret, suggest, like, propose, detest, dread, resent, pardon, try, fancy. Ví dụ: He admitted taking the money Would you consider selling the property? He kept complaining. He didn’t want to risk getting wet.  Chú ý: the gerund cũng theo sau những cụm từ như can’t stand (=endure), can’t help (=prevent/ avoid), it’s no use/good, there is no point in (chẳng có ích gì …) Ví dụ: I couldn’t help laughing It’s no use arguing. Is there anything here worth buying? b. Verb + possessive adjective/ pronoun + V-ing 2  Cấu trúc này được sử dụng với các động từ như: dislike, resent, object, excuse, forgive, pardon, prevent. Ví dụ: Forgive my/me ringing you up so early. He disliked me/my working late. He resented my/me being promoted before him. c. Verb + pronoun + preposition + V-ing  Cấu trúc này được dùng với các động từ như: forgive, prevent, stop, excuse. Ví dụ: You can’t prevent him from spending his own money. 2. The infinitive(động từ nguyên thể) 2.1. Verb + the infinitive  Những động từ sau được theo sau trực tiếp bởi the infinitive: Agree, appear, arrange, attempt, ask, decide, determine, be determined, fail, endeavour, forget, happen, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, promise, prove, refuse, remember, seem, tend, threaten, try, volunteer expect, want, mean. Ví dụ: She agreed to pay $50. Two men failed to return from the expedition. The tenants refused to leave. She volunteered to help the disabled. He learnt to look after himself. 2.2. Verb + how/what/when/where/ which/why + infinitive  Những động từ sử dụng công thức này là ask, decide, discover, find out, forget, know, learn, remember, see, show + object, think, understand, want to know, wonder. Ví dụ: He discovered how to open the safe. I found out where to buy fruit cheaply. She couldn’t think what to say. I showed her which button to press. 2.3. Verb + object + the infinitive  Những động từ theo công thức này là advise, allow, enable, encourage, forbid, force, hear, instruct, invite, let, order, permit, persuade, request, remind, see, train, teach how, urge, warn, tempt. Ví dụ: These glasses will enable you to see in the dark. She encouraged me to try again. They forbade her to leave the house. They persuaded us to go with them. 3 2.4. Assume, believe, consider, feel, know, suppose, understand + (object) + to be I consider him to be the best candidate (= He is considered to be the best candidate) He is known to be honest. You are supposed to know the laws of your own country. 3. Một số cách dùng đặc biệt  Một số động từ có thể đi cùng với cả động từ nguyên thể và V-ing, hãy so sánh sự khác nhau về ý nghĩa giữa chúng: Stop + V-ing: dừng làm gì Stop making noise! (dừng làm ồn) Stop + to V: dừng để làm gì I stop to smoke (tôi dừng lại để hút thuốc) Remember/forget/regret + to V: nhớ/quên/tiếc sẽ phải làm gì (ở hiện tại và tương lai) Remember to send this letter (hãy nhớ gửi bức thư này). Don’t forget to buy flowers (đừng quên mua hoa đấy) I regret to inform you that the train was canceled (tôi rất tiếc phải báo tin cho anh rằng chuyến tầu đã bị hủy bỏ) Remember/forget/regret + V-ing: nhớ/quên/tiếc đã làm gì (ở quá khứ). I paid her $2. I still remember that. I still remember paying her $2 (tôi nhớ đã trả cô ấy 2 đô la). She will never forget meeting the Queen (cô ấy không bao giờ quên lần gặp nữ hoàng) He regrets leaving school early. It is the biggest mistake in his life. Try + to V: cố gắng làm gì I try to pass the exam. (tôi cố gắng vượt qua kì thi) Try + V-ing: thử làm gì You should try unlocking the door with this key (bạn nên thử mở cửa với chiếc khóa này). Like + V-ing: thích làm gì vì nó thú vị, hay, cuốn hút, làm để thưởng thức I like watching TV. Like + to V: làm việc đó vì nó là tốt và cần thiết. I want to have a job. I like to learn English. Would like + to V: mời ai đi đâu Would you like to go to the cinema? Prefer + doing something + to + doing something else. I prefer driving to travelling by train. Prefer + to do something + rather than (do) something else 4 I prefer to drive rather than travel by train. Need + to V: cần làm gì I need to go to school today. Need/want/require + V-ing: mang nghĩa bị động (cần được làm gì) Your hair needs cutting (tóc của bạn cần được cắt ngắn). The grass needs cutting. The grass wants cutting. Be used to + V-ing: quen với việc gì (ở hiện tại). I’m used to getting up early (tôi quen với việc dậy sớm). Used to + V: thường làm gì trong quá khứ (bây giờ không làm nữa). I used to get up early when I lived in Bac Giang (tôi thường dậy sớm khi tôi sống ở Bắc Giang). Advise/ allow/ permit/ recommend + object + to V: Khuyên/cho phép/đề nghị ai làm gì He advised me to apply at once. They don't allow us to park here. Advise/ allow/ permit/ recommend + Ving: Khuyên/ cho phép/ đề nghị làm gì He advised applying at once. They don't allow parking here. See / hear/ smell/ feel/ notice/ watch + object + V-ing: Cấu trúc này được sử dụng khi người nói chỉ chứng kiến một phần của hành động: I see him passing my house everyday. She smelt something burning and saw smoke rising. See / hear/ smell/ feel/ notice/ watch + object + V(nguyển thể không có 'to'): Cấu trúc này được sử dụng khi người nói chỉ chứng kiến toàn bộ hành động: We saw him leave the house. I heard him make arrangements for his journey. III. CỦNG CỐ KIẾN THỨC Bài tập 1: Chọn dạng đúng của động từ trong những câu sau: 1. The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper. 2. They appreciate (to have/having) this information. 3. His father doesn’t approve of his (going/ to go) to Europe. 4. We found it very difficult (reaching/ to reach) a decision. 5. Donna is interested in (to open/opening) a bar. 6. George has no intention of (to leave/leaving) the city now. 7. We are eager (to return/returning) to school in the fall. 5 8. We would be better off (to buy/ buying) this car. 9. She refused (to accept/ accepting) the gift. 10. Mary regrets (to be/being) the one to have to tell him. 11. George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday. 12. Carlos hopes (to finish/finishing) his thesis this year. 13. They agreed (to leave/leaving) early. 14. Helen was anxious (to tell/ telling) her family about her promotion. 15. We are not ready (to stop/stopping) this research at this time. 16. Henry shouldn’t risk (to drive/driving) so fast. 17. He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on. 18. She is looking forward to (return/returning) to her country. 19. There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition. 20. Gerald returned to his home after (to leave/leaving) the game. Bài tập 2: Hoàn thành mỗi câu sau với một trong các động từ sau: apply, be, be, listen, make, see, try, use, wash, work, write. (chia động từ theo đúng dạng): 1. Could you please stop………………..so much noise? 2. I enjoy …………………to music. 3. I considered …………………..for the job but in the end I decided against it. 4. Have you finished ………………………your hair yet? 5. If you walk into the road without looking, you risk………knocked down. 6. Jim is 65 but he isn’t going to retire yet. He wants to carry on……………… 7. I don’t mind you……………the phone as long as you pays for all your calls. 8. Hello! Fancy …………..you here! What a surprise! 9. I’ve put off ………………..the letter so many times. I really must do it today. 10. What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine any body ……………..so stupid? 11. Sarah gave up …………………..to find a job in this company and decided to go abroad. Đáp án: Bài 1: 1. to accept 2. having 3. going 4. to reach 5. opening 6. leaving 7. to return 8. buying 9. to accept 10. being 11. to be 12. to finish 13. to leave 14. to tell 15. to stop 16. driving 17. to know 18. returning 19. leaving 20. leaving Bài 2: 1. making 2. listening 3. applying 4. washing 5. being 6. working 7. using 8. seeing 6 9. writing 10. being 11. trying IV. BÀI TẬP VỀ NHÀ Bài tập 1: Chọn đáp án a, b, c hoặc d để hoàn thành những câu sau: 1. Ms. Lan enjoys ……because she loves working with children. a. to teach b. to be taught c. teaching d. d. teach 2. I’d like to stay at home ……going out this evening. a. rather than b. instead of c. more than d. better at 3. It is such a terrible day that I don’t ……..to go out. a. Want b. fancy c. enjoy d. need 4. I have such a lot of work to do that I don’t know ……..to do first a. When b. What c. Where d. why 5. The reason …….he refused this job is that he doesn’t like the boss. a. What b. Who c. why d. when 6. My father doesn’t allow me ……in his room. a. to smoke b. smoking c. smoke d. not smoke 7. Nam ……in finding a good job in an advertising company. a. managed b. gained c. succeeded d. got 8. It’s better to avoid ………during the rush hour. a. traveling b. to travel c. travel d. traveled 9. It was a nice day, so we decided ………..for walk. a. to have b. to go c. to take d. to make 10. Would you ………..looking after my children for a while? 7 a. mind b. agree c. stand d. care 11. I have difficulty ……..and ………..English. a. speak-writing b. to speak-to write c. c. speaking-writing d. d. speak-write 12. They offered ……her but she refused. a. to help b. helping c. help d. being helped 13. I don’t mind …..you ……..the washing up. a. help-do b. helping-doing c. helping-do d. to help-to do 14. I’d like …….when I am sixty years old. a. to rest b. to stop c. to retire d. to relax 15. The children are looking forward to ………..on holiday. a. go b. going c. be going d. have gone 16. You must try not …….so many mistakes again. a. make b. making c. to make d. makes 17. He advised me …………….at this time. a. not to go out b. not go out c. not going out d. not to going ut 18. We always expect ……….as many good marks as possible. a. getting b. get c. to getting d. to get 19. This book is worthy ………for us. a. to read b. reading c. read d. be read 20. I have trouble ………late at nights. a. work 8 b. to work c. working d. works Bài tập 2: Chia động từ trong ngoặc theo đúng dạng: 1. He tried (explain) but she refused (listen) 2. At dinner she annoyed me by (smoke) between two courses. 3. You are expected (know) the safety regulations of the college. 4. He decided (disguise) himself by (dress) as a woman. 5. Would you mind (show) me how (work) the lift? 6. After (walk) for three hours, we stopped to let the others (catch up) with us. 7. He was fined for (exceed) the speed limit. 8. I regret (inform) you that your application has been refused. 9. I couldn’t help (overhear) what you said. 10. A: I don’t allow (smoke) in my drawing room. B: I don’t allow my family (smoke) at all. 11. He surprised us all by (go) away without (say) good- bye. 12. He wore dark glasses (avoid) (be) recognized. 13. Before (give) evidence, you must swear (speak) the truth. 14. I tried (persuade) him (agree) with your proposal. 15. Your windows need (clean) . Would you like me (do) them for you? 16. Stop (talk) . I’m trying (finish) a letter. 17. His doctor advised him (give up) (jog) . 18. My watch keeps (stop) . That’s because you keep (forget) (wind) it. 19. Is (boil) or (fry) the best way of (cook) this fish? 20. Try (avoid) (be) late. He hates (be) kept (wait) . Source: violet.vn

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