Factors affecting environmental accounting and the impact of its on the operational results of textile and garment enterprises in Viet Nam

Thirdly, because the environmental accounting in Vietnam is

quite new, there are no specific legal documents on environmental

accounting, and students in the accounting profession have not been

taught about environmental accounting. In the field of accounting,

the issue of environmental accounting is primarily known through

articles, graduate student research papers or graduate students.

Therefore, it is necessary to have specific legal provisions as well as

courses to help accountants gain more knowledge about accounting

in general and environmental accounting in particular. Schools that

teach accounting should add the knowledge of environmental

accounting into the curriculum. Besides, the Accounting and

Auditing Association and other related organizations should organize

seminars with topics related to environmental accounting to share

experiences among enterprise accountants on environmental

accounting or to invite Foreign experts share practical experience on

environmental accounting in international businesses.

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counting have not been fully explored yet, there are still many inconsistencies. Thirdly, this study complements the previous researches of modeling impact factors, measuring the impact of factors affecting environmental accounting and determining the impact level of the environmental accounting to the performance of garment and textile enterprises in Vietnam through qualitative and quantitative research methods. Thus, it can be seen that the results obtained from this study contribute to fill the gaps in the study, and also provide a theoretical basis to explain the implementation of environmental accounting in the enterprise. The textile industry in Vietnam in particular and the business in general, form the basis for future studies related to environmental accounting. 6 6.2 Practical contributions Currently, in Vietnam, environmental accounting is a relatively new research area, especially in the textile industry in Vietnam, so this study contributes to promoting the implementation of environmental accounting in enterprises in the textile industry in particular and enterprises in Vietnam in general. This study also contributes to raising the awareness of managers in textile enterprises in particular and enterprises in Vietnam in general, who are more environmentally responsible when conducting business and production. In Vietnam, currently there are no specific regulations on environmental accounting, this study contributes to accounting support based on the organization of recording and disclosing environmental accounting information, supporting agencies, professional organizations in making environmental accounting policies and guidelines. 7. The structure of the thesis In addition to the introduction, general conclusions, different lists, references and appendices, the thesis has 5 chapters as follows: o Chapter 1: Overview of studies o Chapter 2: Theoretical basis o Chapter 3: Research methodology o Chapter 4: Research results and discussion o Chapter 5: Conclusions and some implications CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH 1.1. Overview of studies in the world 1.1.1. The study is related to environmental accounting 7 1.1.1.1. Studies related to disclosure of environmental accounting information in enterprises In the context of sustainable socio-economic development, in order to reduce the pressures from stakeholders, in addition to maximizing the value to shareholders of businesses, they have sought to reduce negative impacts on the environment, voluntarily reporting their environmental activities (Halil Emre Akbas1 and Seda Canikli, 2014). 1.1.1.2. Studies related to environmental management accounting in enterprises Disclosure of individual environmental accounting information that does not attempt to integrate with environmental management accounting will not be effective. Businesses can take the initiative to prevent and reduce environmental impacts, environmental management accounting will be a strategic management accounting tool to measure and monitor these actions. Environmental management accounting is a support tool for businesses to effectively manage the environment and report environmental information (Chang, 2007). The failure of conventional accounting systems to report the accounting information necessary to reduce environmental impacts, reduce environmental costs, has led to the emergence of environmental management accounting. (Ferreira et al., 2010). 1.1.2. The study related to the impact factor 1.1.2.1. Studies related to factors affecting the disclosure of environmental accounting information As the attention to research on environmental accounting has increased, studies on the factors affecting companies and countries in 8 making environmental reports and disclosing environmental accounting information more and more, and large companies publish more environmental information in annual reports (Shane and Spicer, 1983). 1.1.2.2. Studies related to the factors affecting the performance of environmental management accounting In each country, different industries, ... the implementation of environmental accounting is influenced by different factors. For environmental accounting to be done, the state, consumers, and businesses need to work together to produce an outcome (Habib Akdoğan and Ela Hiçyorulmaz, 2014). 1.1.3. Studies related to the relationship between environmental accounting and business performance 1.1.3.1. Studies related to the relationship between the disclosure of environmental accounting information and the benefits, financial and environmental performance of enterprises Several studies show a positive relationship between environmental information disclosure and firm's financial performance (Neu et al., 1998; Peter M. Clarkson et al., 2008; Norhasimah Md Nor et al, 2015; Hery Syaerul Homan, 2016; Wei- Lun Huang and Yan-Kai Fu, 2019; Oyedokun Godwin Emmanuel et al, 2019). Several other studies show no relationship between disclosing environmental accounting information and corporate financial performance (Jaggi M. , 1988; Aries Widiarto Sutantoputra et al, 2009; Dion van de Burgwal and Rui José Oliveira Vieira, 2014). 1.1.3.2. Studies related to the benefits of environmental management accounting 9 Research results on the relationship between environmental activities and operations of enterprises are very complex and difficult. Some authors find positive relationships while others do not find similar results (Sayedeh Parastoo Saeidi et al., 2011). 1.2. Tổng quan các nghiên cứu trong nước. 1.2.1. Các nghiên cứu liên quan đến kế toán môi trường Since the early 2000s, Vietnam has only had researches related to environmental accounting. Some authors such as Nguyen Chi Quang, 2003; Trong Duong, 2008; Pham Duc Hieu, 2010; Pham Duc Hieu and Tran Thi Hong Mai, 2012; Hoang Thi Dieu Linh, 2013 Currently, in Vietnam, there have been a number of studies related to the implementation and environmental accounting in business and enterprise sectors. Nguyen Anh Tuyet and Nguyen Chi Quang (2006), Bui Thi Thu Thuy (2010), Le Thi Tam and Pham Thi Bich Chi (2016), Hoang Thi Bich Ngoc (2017), Pham Hoai Nam (2016), Nguyen Thi Hang Nga (2018), Hoang Thuy Dieu Linh (2013), Le Ngoc My Hang (2015). Lam Thi Truc Linh (2019), Trinh Hiep Thien (2010), Nguyen Thanh Tai (2012) 1.2.2. Studies related to impact factors Currently, in Vietnam there are not many studies on the factors affecting environmental accounting. Some authors: Pham Duc Hieu (2010), Hoang Thi Bich Ngoc (2017), Ngo Thi Hoai Nam (2017), Nguyen Thi Hang Nga (2018), Le Ngoc My Hang (2015), Nguyen La Soa et al. (2018), Lam Thi Truc Linh (2019) ... 1.2.3. Studies related to the relationship between the accounting organization and the performance of the business Currently, there are a number of studies in the country that show the relationship between the accounting organization and the 10 performance of enterprises such as Le Thi Tam and Pham Thi Bich Chi (2016) Tran Tuesday (2017), Dang Ngoc Hung (2017), Nguyen Phong Nguyen and Tran Thi Trinh (2018), Nguyen La Soa and Tran Manh Dung (2019), Nguyen La Soa (2019). 1.3. Comment The environmental information published by companies is mainly descriptive, qualitative, positive, and there are differences between countries, industries, and companies in the field of environmental accounting. Many studies show that the publication of environmental information is not voluntary. More and more authors are conducting environmental accounting studies, and are carried out in many fields. The studies also show a variety of research orientations such as raising the status of environmental accounting, providing solutions to apply environmental accounting, studying the factors affecting the implementation of the accounting environmental system. Studies have been conducted in many countries, fields and enterprises to find out many factors affecting the performance of environmental accounting, the impact of environmental accounting practices on the performance of businesses. However, there is no agreement on the results between the studies. Environmental accounting is rarely done, used, it is only done, used in large-scale enterprises, these companies are often among the leading companies in the industry and often the The company has high financial efficiency due to strict regulations such as carbon emissions, waste trading programs (CIMA, 2009; Nguyen La Soa and Tran Manh Dung, 2019). 11 In Vietnam, environmental accounting has been interested in a number of authors, but there has not been much research on the factors affecting environmental accounting in Vietnam. In recent years, in Vietnam, there have been many authors studying environmental accounting in a specific field of business or business. However, there have been no studies using mixed research methods to study the factors affecting environmental accounting and its impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam. 1.4. Research gaps and identify research issues 1.4.1. Research gaps Studies on environmental accounting in Vietnam are limited, mainly focused in developed countries. Previous studies have found many different factors that affect the performance of environmental accounting, but the results are not similar, inconsistent. Studies on environmental accounting in Vietnam often separate environmental finance accounting and environmental management accounting, there are not many studies on impact factors, the degree of impact of factors on environmental accounting and the impact of environmental accounting on the performance of enterprises. There are no studies using mixed research methods to determine the influence of factors on environmental accounting and its impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam. From the above reasons, in order to verify the factors affecting the environmental accounting from previous studies, as well as to discover more impact factors and consider the impact of environmental accounting on performance of textile and garment enterprises in Vietnam, PhD students conducted research "Factors 12 affecting environmental accounting and its impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam". 1.4.2. Identify research issues The author studies on factors affecting environmental accounting and its impact on the performance of enterprises in Vietnam in general and textile enterprises in Vietnam in particular through research, detect, assess factors affecting environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam. CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BASIS 2.1. Overview of environmental accounting 2.1.1 Concepts Environmental accounting in an enterprise is the collection, processing, inspection, analysis and reporting of information related to the environment in the form of value and in kind for internal and external objects. enterprise. Environmental accounting report of an enterprise is the provision of information on environmental accounting related to the enterprise that has been collected, processed, inspected and analyzed for objects inside or outside the enterprise have interest. 2.1.2 Contents of environmental accounting The thesis presents the content related to environmental accounting including: environmental assets, environmental liabilities, environmental income, environmental costs, material flow accounting, environmental estimation, announcement. Environmental accounting information. 2.2 The relationship between environmental accounting and business performance 13 Business results are the ones achieved and achieved by enterprises conducting jobs that are closely related to each other in their production and business process. Most managers do not realize the benefits of improving environmental efficiency or reducing environmental impact such as increasing profits from selling environmentally friendly products, or reducing or saving costs ( IFAC, 2005). 2.3 Theoretical background Theories: Contingency theory, institutional theory, legal theory, stakeholder theory, benefit-cost analysis theory Table 2.5. Factors affecting environmental accounting and the relationship with background theory Table 2.5. Factors affecting environmental accounting and the relationship with background theory. N.o Factors Theoretical background Previous research involved 1 Firm size - Contingency theory, legal theory, stakeholder theory Khaled Abed Hutaibat (2005), Mohd and Fadzil (2013), Nurul Huda Binti Yahya (2015), Omar Juhmani (2014), Tran Ngoc Hung (2016), Dion van de Burgwal and Rui José Oliveira Vieira (2014) 2 Stakeholders - Institutional theory, stakeholder theory, Bartolomeo et al. (2000), Faizah Mohd Khalid et al (2012); Chang (2007); Oluwamayowa Olelakan Iredele (2018) 3 Auditing - Institutional theory, legal theory, Faizah Mohd Khalid et al (2012), Mohd and Fadzil (2013), Omar Juhmani (2014) 4 Financial Resources - Contingency theory, institutional Gadenne, D. L. et al (2009), Mumbi Maria Wachira (2014), Che et al (2015), Omar Juhmani 14 theory, legal theory (2014), Chang (2007), Kemi C. Yekini et al (2018) 5 Staff Qualifications - Contingency theory, institutional theory Altohami Otman Alkisher (2013), Che et al (2015), McChlery et al, (2004), Ismail and King, (2007), Tran Ngoc Hung (2016), Chang (2007) 6 Regulations - Institutional theory Che et al (2015), Chang (2007) 7 Industry -Legal theory Ferreira, A. et al (2010); Dion van de Burgwal and Rui José Oliveira Vieira (2014); Kemi C. Yekini et al (2018) 8 Religion - Contingency theory Randika Dissanayake et al (2012), Mohd và Fadzil(2013), Nurul Huda Binti Yahya (2015) (Source: Summary of author) 2.4 Develop proposed research hypotheses Table 2.6. The proposed research hypotheses N.o Hypothesis Content Expected sign 1 H1 Firm size has a positive impact on environmental accounting among garment enterprises in Vietnam + 2 H2 Stakeholders have the same impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam + 3 H3 Auditing has the same directional impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam + 4 H4 Financial resources have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam + 5 H5 Staff qualifications have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam + 6 H6 The regulations have a positive impact on environmental accounting in + 15 garment enterprises in Vietnam 7 H7 The industry has a positive impact on environmental accounting among garment enterprises in Vietnam + 8 H8 Religion has a positive impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam + 9 H9 Environmental accounting has a positive impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam + (Source: Summary of author) CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS The author uses a mixed research method, including 2 stages: The qualitative research phase and the quantitative research phase: Qualitative research - Step 1: Overview and theoretical basis: The author synthesizes relevant previous studies on environmental accounting, combined with the theoretical basis, the author finds gaps and identifies research issues. - Step 2: Proposing research model and draft scale. The author inherits the environmental accounting issues that have been affirmed in previous studies, combined with the characteristics of the textile industry in Vietnam to propose a research model and draft scale. - Step 3: Discuss, seek opinions, synthesize expert opinions. From there, the author proposes a model for studying environmental impact accounting factors that affect the performance of textile and garment enterprises in Vietnam. - Step 4: Research model and official scale: After in-depth discussion with experts, the author draws and presents the official research model and scale 16 Quantitative research - Step 5: Survey: Based on the research model and official scale, the author prepares the survey table and conducts the survey. - Step 6: Data analysis: After obtaining data from the survey questionnaire, the author will remove the questionnaire does not meet the requirements, then perform data entry for analysis. First, the author conducted the verification of the ladder by Cronbach’s Alpha method. Next, the author uses EFA analysis to summarize and collapse the scale. The author then conducted CFA analysis to confirm the reliability, the convergent value, the discriminant value, the theoretical contact value. Finally, the author uses the SEM model to test hypotheses. CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Overview of Vietnam's textile and garment industry Over the past years, the textile industry has always played a key role in Vietnam's exports, in 2018 export turnover was more than 36 billion USD. , , , , benefit-cost analysis theory 4.2. Qualitative research results Table 4.1. Summary of official research hypotheses N . o Hypothesis Content Expect ed sign Theoretical background 1 H1 Firm size has a positive impact on environmental accounting among garment enterprises in Vietnam + Contingency theory 2 H2 Stakeholders have the same impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam + Stakeholder theory 3 H3 Financial resources have a positive impact on + Contingency theory 17 environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam 4 H4 Qualifications of accountants have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam + Contingency theory 5 H5 Regulations have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam + Institutional theory 6 H6 Level and scope of environmental impact of textile and garment enterprises have a positive impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam + Legal theory 7 H7 Perception of textile industry leaders on the environment and environmental accounting has a positive impact on the environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam. + Contingency theory 8 H8 Environmental accounting has a positive impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam + benefit-cost analysis theory (Source: Summary of author) 4.3. Quantitative research results Testing theoretical models 18 Chi-square = 878,595; df = 638; P = 0,000; Chi-square/df = 1,377; GFI = 0,901; TLI = 0,972; CFI = 0,975; RMSEA = 0,030 (Source: Processing results from author's survey data) Figure 4.5. SEM results of the research model (standardized) Table 4.24. Regression coefficient of relationships (standardized) Hypothesis Regression Estimation H1 Firm size  environmental accounting 0,301 H2 Stakeholders  environmental accounting 0,211 H3 Financial resource  environmental accounting 0,146 H4 Qualification of accountants  environmental accounting 0,277 H5 Regulations  environmental accounting 0,281 H6 Level and scope of impact on the environment of textile enterprises  environmental accounting 0,138 H7 Awareness of enterprise leaders in  environmental accounting 0,156 19 textile industry on environment and EA H8 environmental accounting  Performance of textile enterprises 1,000 (Source: Processing results from author's survey data) Table 4.24 shows that firm size has the strongest impact on environmental accounting (standardized weight of 0.301), followed by regulations (standardized weight of 0.281), and qualifications of accountants (weighted). standardized 0.277), stakeholders (standardized weight 0.211), perception of textile industry leaders on environment, environmental accounting (standardized weight 0.156), financial resources (weighted standardized 0.146) and finally the level and extent of environmental impacts of enterprises in textile industry (weighted 0.1138). Environmental accounting has a strong impact on the performance of textile enterprises (weighted 1,000).. Table 4.26. Summary of test results of NC hypothese Hypothesis Content Conclude H1 Firm size has a positive impact on environmental accounting among garment enterprises in Vietnam Accept H2 Stakeholders have the same impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam Accept H3 Financial resources have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam Accept H4 Qualifications of accountants have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam Accept H5 Regulations have a positive impact on environmental accounting in garment enterprises in Vietnam Accept H6 Level and scope of environmental impact of Accept 20 textile and garment enterprises have a positive impact on environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam H7 Perception of textile industry leaders on the environment and environmental accounting has a positive impact on the environmental accounting in textile enterprises in Vietnam. Accept H8 Environmental accounting has a positive impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam Accept (Source: Processing results from author's survey data) 4.4. Discussions 4.4.1. The reliability of the scale is due to: Through the testing results of the methods, we can see that the Cronbach's alpha, EFA, CFA coefficients of the scales (except for the scale of SIZE3, FINA3, QUAL2) are eligible. The reliability of the scale of impact factors, environmental accounting, business performance is reliable and available for the next research steps. 4.4.2. Factors affecting environmental accounting and its impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam performance +1,00 environment al accounting Size Stakeholders Financial qualifications of accountants regulations Level and scope Perception of textile industry leaders 21 (Source: Summary of author) Figure 4.6. The official research model on factors affecting environmental accounting and its impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS AND SOME IMPLICATIONS 5.1. Conclusion 07 factors that positively impact environmental accounting among garment and textile enterprises in Vietnam: The size of enterprises has the strongest impact on environmental accounting (standardized weight of 0.301), followed by the regulations. (0.281), qualifications of accountants (0.277), stakeholders (0.211), perception of textile industry leaders about the environment, environmental accounting (0.156), financial resources (0.146) ) and finally, level and scope of environmental impacts of garment enterprises (0.158). At the same time, the study results also show that environmental accounting has a strong impact on the performance of textile enterprises in Vietnam (1,000 standardized weight). Table 5.1. The degree of contribution of the factors affecting environmental accounting Nhân tố Hệ số hồi quy Mức độ đóng góp Firm size 0,301 20% regulations 0,281 19% Qualifications of accountants 0,277 18% Stakeholders 0,211 14% Perception of textile industry leaders about the environment, environmental accounting 0,156 10% financial resources 0,146 10% 22 Level and scope of environmental impacts of garment enterprises 0,138 9% (Source: Processing results from author's survey data) 5.2. Some implications drawn from the study Firstly, the large-scale textile enterprises in Vietnam have a large turnover, a large number of employees, a lot of machinery and equipment, so a lot of information is needed for the management and administration, however, enterprises Textile and garment industry in Vietnam is mostly small and medium enterprises. Small and medium-sized enterprises need less information for administration and management due to their small size and less complicated management. Therefore, for small-sized garment and textile enterprises, it is necessary to integrate environmental accounting into traditional accounting in the most reasonable way to obtain necessary

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