Factors affecting the intention of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food of urban consumers in the South Central Coast region

Discuss attitudes and factors influencing attitudes toward traditional

market choices for buying fresh food

First: The most substantial influence on attitude towards the behavior of choosing

traditional markets to buy fresh food is the factor that perceives yourself as a traditional

person, with a normalized β coefficient of 0.386 p <0.001. Thus, those who have a high

sense of themselves as traditional, the higher their attitude towards the behavior of

choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food.

Second: The second place in terms of the degree of strong and positive influence on

attitudes is the sense of usefulness of traditional markets in choosing to buy fresh food.

Meanwhile, although "modern" markets have many advantages, traditional markets still

have outstanding features in terms of benefits that all consumers feel. The primary benefits

of traditional markets for fresh food that consumers often perceive are lower prices,

fresher food, easier to buy and sell, more convenient to buy, and sell . (Thanh Huong,

2019, Dang Khoa, 2019, Do Dat, 2018).

Third: Ranked third and like predictions, expressed through the hypothesis,

consumers feel themselves as modern people disapproving of the behavior of choosing

traditional markets to buy fresh food. In other words, the factor of self-perception as a

modern person negatively affects consumers' attitude towards the behavior of choosing

traditional markets to buy fresh food, β standardized is -0,202p <0.001, or The higher their

self-perceived modernity, the more negative they will have toward choosing traditional

markets to buy fresh food

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ous (Đăng Khoa, 2019, Renko and Petljak, 2018) and more accessible to buy (Dieu Huong, 2018), many goods are also specific to regions, with particular characteristics (Industry and Trade, 2012, Renko and Petljak, 2018). Third: More convenient, easier to buy, and sell. The convenience of the place to buy is also one of the important factors that create a sense of the usefulness of a traditional market, thereby affecting the attitudes and intentions of consumers to choose where to buy, including the attitude and intention of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food from Vietnamese consumers (Nguyen Van Ngoc and Vu Duy Nhu Hao, 2018, Chu Nguyen Mong Ngoc and Pham Tan Nhat, 2013). Fourth: Fresh food in particular and food in general in traditional markets are usually fresher. The freshness of food, including fresh food, is one of the next principal reasons to increase perceived usefulness, leading to consumers often choosing traditional markets to buy from them (Si et al., 2018, Gindi et al., 2016). Products in traditional markets are typically fresh (Gorton et al., 2011, Renko and Petljak, 2018, Goldman et al., 1999), natural, and of good quality (Renko and Petljak, 2018), especially products such as pork, beef, poultry, raw seafood (Zhong et al., 2018) 6 From the above analysis, the thesis proposes the following research hypothesis: H2: The more consumers perceive that traditional markets are useful for buying fresh food, the more positive they are towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food. 2.3.3. Ease of use (accessibility, ease of sale) of traditional markets One of the two important components in the technology adoption model (TAM) is the perception of the ease of use of a certain technology, the degree of perceived ease of use affects the perception of usefulness and attitudes toward choice behavior (Davis, 1989, Kim, 2006, Weerasinghe and Hindagolla, 2017). Consumers choose a modern or traditional retailer depending on many factors, including convenience, ease of access and "use", such as accessibility (eg go set (Si et al., 2018)), returnability, product diversity (Maruyama and Trung, 2011, Si et al., 2018). H3a: The more consumers perceive that traditional markets are easy to use and accessible to buy fresh food, the more positive their attitudes toward the behavior of buying fresh food in traditional markets. H3b: The more consumers perceive that traditional markets are easy to use and accessible to buy fresh food, the more they feel that traditional markets are useful in buying fresh food. 2.3.4. Feel yourself as a traditional person and feel yourself as a modern person The effect of feeling yourself as a traditional person and feeling yourself as a modern person on the sense of usefulness of traditional markets According to Mai et al., in a transitional economy like in Vietnam, those with a high level of traditional self-perception are usually the elderly, they have lower education levels and income levels, lower than those who perceive themselves as modern (Mai et al., 2009), they prefer traditional cultural values and products so that they will be more adaptable. With the purchase of fresh food from traditional markets; in other words, they will experience the ease of use and access to traditional markets at a higher level than those who perceive themselves as modern. Therefore, the thesis offers the following hypotheses: H4a: The more a consumer perceives himself as a traditional person, the more useful a traditional market is buying fresh food. H4b: The more a consumer perceives himself as a modern person, the less traditional markets are less useful for buying fresh food. 7 Influence of feeling yourself as a traditional person and perceiving yourself as a modern person of consumers on the sense of ease of use and accessibility of traditional markets In conventional markets, consumers can go straight to the market, or even sit in a car to buy food and then leave, which is one of the things that increases the perceived level of ease. ease of use, accessibility of traditional markets. Also, some other characteristics of traditional markets can also affect consumers' perceptions of ease of use and accessibility such as food products in traditional markets are often more diverse, "fresh, live" more and therefore, easier to choose; Fresh food products in traditional markets are often packaged simpler, making it easier to check with the consumer's shopping experience ... However, for younger consumers, the packaging is not in accordance with specifications. The accompanying criterion is the absence of quality certifications that make it difficult to purchase when they often do not have the skills required to buy a right food product, which will reduce the level of colds, received about the ease of use and accessibility of traditional markets for young consumers. Therefore, the thesis offers the following hypotheses: H5a: Consumers who perceive themselves as a traditional will find traditional markets easier to use and more accessible to buy fresh food. H5b: Consumers who perceive themselves as a modern person will find traditional markets challenging to use, accessible in the purchase of fresh food. The effect of perceiving yourself as a traditional person and feeling yourself as a modern person on attitudes toward the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food In many previous studies, it has also shown the important role of these two factors in influencing attitudes towards Vietnamese consumers' behaviors. For example, Mai et al., on the factors that precede the young Vietnamese consumers' intention to buy organic food, show that they feel themselves as modern and that they feel themselves as traditional people strongly influenced young Vietnamese consumers' attitudes towards organic food buying (Mai et al., 2018) as well as their attitude towards organic food buying behavior. Vietnamese urban consumers (Nguyen et al., 2019); or attitudes towards the behavior of reusable bags among urban Vietnamese consumers (Huong and Hung, 2020). Therefore, the thesis proposes the following hypotheses: H6a: The more consumers perceive that traditional people are, the more positive their attitudes toward the behavior of buying fresh food in traditional markets. 8 H6b: The more a consumer perceives himself as a modern person, the more negative attitudes a consumer has towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food. 2.4. Research model and scale 2.4.1. Research models From the research review of the factors affecting the intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food above, the author proposes the following research model: Picture 2.7: Research model Source: the author 2.4.2. Scale used in research Based on an overview of domestic and foreign studies, the author selects scales of researchers previously developed, widely used in Vietnam, or revised to suit Vietnamese conditions Table 2.2: The scale of attitudes towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food No Encode Content Author Feel yourself as a modern person Feel yourself as a traditional person Ease of use of traditional markets Usefulness of traditional markets Attitude towards traditional market selection behavior Intent to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food Control variables: gender, age, income H1 + H3b + 9 1 ATT1 Choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food is the right choice Edited from Armitage and Conner, 1999. Mai et al., 2018 2 ATT2 Choosing traditional markets for fresh food is a must 3 ATT3 Choosing traditional markets for fresh food is a smart choice 4 ATT4 Choosing traditional markets for fresh food is a fun option Table 2.3: Scale of intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food No Encode Content Author 1 INT1 I tend to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food in the future Edited from Armitage and Conner, 1999. Mai et al., 2018 2 INT2 I plan to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food the next time I go 3 INT3 Whenever I need to buy fresh food, I choose the traditional market to buy Table 2.8: Perceived scales of usefulness and perceptions of the ease of use and accessibility of traditional markets in choosing to buy fresh food No Encode Content Author Get a feel for the usefulness of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food 1 PU1 Choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food makes my shopping faster The author develops from the Davis scale., 1989 2 PU2 Choosing traditional markets for the purchase of fresh food makes my shopping more efficient 3 PU3 Choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food makes me more economical 4 PU4 Fresh food in traditional markets is often very fresh and delicious 5 PU5 Fresh food in traditional markets is more diverse 10 No Encode Content Author 6 PU6 In general, choosing the traditional market to buy fresh food to me was helpful The perceived scale of the ease of use and accessibility of traditional markets in choosing to buy fresh food 1 PEU1 I feel that it is very easy to access traditional markets The author develops from the Davis scale., 1989 2 PEU2 Choosing fresh food in traditional markets is very easy 3 PEU3 Buying fresh food in traditional markets is very easy 4 PEU4 It is easy for me to control the quality of fresh food products purchased in traditional markets 5 PEU5 Buying fresh food in traditional markets is quite flexible, I can buy any volume if I want 6 PEU6 I find traditional markets very easy to use in buying fresh food Table 2.9: Scale of feeling yourself as a traditional person and feeling yourself as a modern person Stt Mã hóa Nội dung Tác giả The scale of self-perception is traditional 1 TRA1 I always try to live frugally. Mai et al (2009) 2 TRA2 I feel careful when buying and using new products. 3 TRA3 I feel like enjoying the traditional cultures and arts 4 TRA4 In my opinion, I need to pay attention to the judgment of those around me about myself. 5 TRA5 In my opinion, it is very important to adhere to and uphold traditional norms in social relationships. 11 Scale of feeling yourself as a modern person 1 MOR1 I like modern, trendy people. Mai et al (2009) 2 MOR2 In my opinion, it's important to enjoy life. 3 MOR3 I like the modern lifestyle. 4 MOR4 I love trying new products / services. 5 MOR5 I find the changes more interesting CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS 3.1. Research design The thesis uses a combination of 2 qualitative research methods and quantitative research, according to the process as follows Step 1: Overview of previous studies to detect research gaps, the preliminary determination of research models and hypotheses, scales used in research. Step 2: Qualitative research with the method of in-depth interviews with nine consumers to explore attitudes and intentions to choose traditional markets to buy fresh foods, and at the same time, explore factors that may affect Their attitudes and intentions choose traditional markets to buy their fresh food. Besides, qualitative research with a focus group interview method, the thesis also re-checked the scales adjusted from previous studies to ensure the new research context's suitability. Step 3: A preliminary quantitative study with 148 consumers living in Quy Nhon to check the scales' reliability in the questionnaire revised after qualitative research to be used for official analysis. Step 4: Formal quantitative research with 658 consumers to test the research hypotheses proposed in chapter 2. 3.2. Qualitative research Through the qualitative research process by in-depth interviews with 9 consumers, the thesis has obtained the following results: First: the attitude and intention of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food. Consumers have different attitudes and intentions to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food, divided into three groups: agreement, opposition, and reconciliation. 12 Second: about the factors that motivate consumers to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food. Although many factors influence consumers' intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food in the South Central Coast provinces, it can be divided into two main groups: interest group factors. (fresh, delicious, cheap, with extra pre-processing service ...) and the group elements that are easy to use and access (easy to buy and sell, convenient to buy and buy, have a pre-booked phone for the retailer portion for fresh and delicious products ...) Third: about the hindering factors. Factors that prevent consumers from coming to traditional markets are quite similar, such as the quality of goods, the security of goods, the sagging degradation of conventional markets, the stinking filth of traditional markets, the system, etc ... Fourth: about the characteristics of people who go to the market, including many different types of people, young and old (older), rich and poor, modern, modern or traditional, conservative lifestyles ... 3.3. Quantitative research 3.3.1. Scale used for quantitative research After qualitative research, some scales are adjusted; the official scales used in the remaining quantitative analysis are shown in the following table: Table 3.3: The scales used in quantitative research No Encode Content Author Attitude towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food 1 ATT1 Choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food is the right choice Adapted from Armitage and Conner, 1999. Mai et al., 2018 2 ATT2 Choosing traditional markets for fresh food is a must 3 ATT3 Choosing traditional markets for fresh food is a smart choice 4 ATT4 Choosing traditional markets for fresh food is a fun option Intent to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food 1 INT1 I tend to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food in the future Adapted from Armitage and 2 INT2 I plan to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food the next time I go 13 No Encode Content Author 3 INT3 Whenever I need to buy fresh food, I choose the traditional market to buy Conner, 1999. Mai et al., 2018 Get a feel for the usefulness of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food 1 PU1 Choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food makes my shopping faster The author adjusted from the Davis scale., 1989 2 PU2 Choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food makes me more economical 3 PU3 Fresh food in traditional markets is often very fresh and delicious 4 PU4 Fresh food in traditional markets is more diverse The perceived scale of the ease of use and accessibility of traditional markets in choosing to buy fresh food 1 PEU1 I feel that it is very easy to access traditional markets The author adjusted from the Davis scale., 1989 2 PEU2 Choosing fresh food in traditional markets is very easy 3 PEU3 Buying fresh food in traditional markets is very easy 4 PEU4 It is easy for me to choose fresh, delicious food from traditional markets The scale of self-perception is traditional 1 TRA1 I always try to live frugally. Mai et al (2009) 2 TRA2 I feel careful when buying and using new products. 3 TRA3 I feel like enjoying the traditional cultures and arts 4 TRA4 In my opinion, I need to pay attention to the judgment of those around me about myself. 5 TRA5 In my opinion, it is very important to adhere to and uphold traditional norms in social relationships. 14 No Encode Content Author Scale of feeling yourself as a modern person 1 MOR1 I like modern, trendy people. Mai et al (2009) 2 MOR2 In my opinion, it is important to enjoy life. 3 MOR3 I like the modern lifestyle. 4 MOR4 I love trying new products / services. 5 MOR5 I see changes that make life more interesting Source: author's synthesis CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH RESULTS 4.1. Actual state of mind and intention to buy fresh food in traditional markets 4.2.1. Actual attitude towards choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food Table 4.5: Descriptive statistics of consumers' attitudes towards the behavior of selecting traditional markets to buy fresh food Statistics ATT1 ATT2 ATT3 ATT4 N Valid 685 685 685 685 Missing 0 0 0 0 Mean 3.866 3.682 3.361 3.315 Mode 4.0 4.0 3.0 3.0 Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 Maximum 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 Source: from the dissertation's analytical data Thus, it can be said that the majority of consumers in the South Central Coast provinces have a positive attitude towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food, expressed through the mean value is higher than the level. The average is 3. 4.1.2. Current status of intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food Table 4.6: Descriptive statistics of South Central Coast consumers' preference to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food 15 Statistics INT1 INT2 INT3 N Valid 685 685 685 Missing 0 0 0 Mean 3.543 3.590 3.399 Mode 4.0 4.0 4.0 Minimum 1.0 1.0 1.0 Maximum 5.0 5.0 5.0 Source: from the dissertation's analytical data A rather positive sign when the majority of consumers in the South Central Coast still intend to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food, although this option does not seem outstanding, showing equal to the mean of the observed variables are all higher, but not much, compared with the mean value of 3. 4.3. Verify convergence values, differentiation, and reliability of scales 4.3.1. Verify the convergence and differentiation of the scales Table 4.7: Test of KMO and Bartlett's Test KMO and Bartlett's Test Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .830 Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 9835.963 Df 300 Sig. .000 Source: from the dissertation's analytical data Table 4.9: Convergence values and differentiation by exploratory factor analysis EFA with promax skew rotation Pattern Matrixa Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 PU1 .745 PU2 .781 PU3 .818 PU4 .840 16 Pattern Matrixa Factor 1 2 3 4 5 6 PEOU1 .705 PEOU2 .781 PEOU3 .913 PEOU4 .859 TRA1 .650 TRA2 .557 TRA3 .743 TRA4 .780 TRA5 .730 MOR1 .616 MOR2 .703 MOR3 .881 MOR4 .806 MOR5 .801 ATT1 .633 ATT2 .875 ATT3 .723 ATT4 .746 INT1 .786 INT2 .915 INT3 .752 Extraction Method: Principal Axis Factoring. Rotation Method: Promax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 7 iterations. Source: from the dissertation's analytical data 4.3.3. Test discriminant validity, convergence value and reliability by CFA 17 Table 4.12: Measurement of CR, AVE, MSV, SQRTAVE and correlation among factors CR AVE MSV Max R(H) Mo Peu Tr Pu At In Mo 0.874 0.586 0.198 0.899 0.765 Peu 0.891 0.671 0.198 0.894 0.445*** 0.819 Tr 0.835 0.505 0.257 0.846 -0.068 -0.331*** 0.711 Pu 0.872 0.631 0.179 0.880 -0.091* -0.046 0.353*** 0.795 At 0.862 0.610 0.257 0.876 -0.259*** -0.190*** 0.507*** 0.423*** 0.781 In 0.859 0.670 0.255 0.869 -0.151*** -0.013 0.399*** 0.242*** 0.504*** 0.819 Source: from the dissertation's analytical data 4.4. Test results of models and hypotheses 4.4.1. Indicators of the suitability of the model Table 4.13: The suitability index of the model No Index Value 1 Chi-bình phương 870,094 2 Bậc tự do 342 3 Chi-bình phương/bậc tự do 2,544 4 CFI 0,947 5 GFI 0,920 6 TLI 0,938 7 Pclose 0,849 8 RMSEA 0,048 Source: from the dissertation's analytical data 4.4.2. Test results of models and hypotheses The research hypothesis testing results are shown in the following table: Table 4.14: Results of hypothesis testing No Dependent variable Independent variable Estimated coefficient p- value Feel the usefulness: R = 0,112 18 No Dependent variable Independent variable Estimated coefficient p- value 1 Feel the usefulness <--- Feel yourself as a traditional person 0.339 *** 2 Feel the usefulness <--- Feel yourself as a modern person -0.095 0.047 3 Feel the usefulness <--- Feel the ease of use, accessibility 0.093 0.067 Feel the ease of use, accessibility: R = 0,278 1 Feel the ease of use, accessibility <--- Feel yourself as a traditional person -0.261 *** 2 Feel the ease of use, accessibility <--- Feel yourself as a modern person 0.431 *** Attitudes toward the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food: R = 0,375 1 attitude <--- Feel yourself as a modern person -0.202 *** 2 attitude <--- Feel yourself as a traditional person 0.386 *** 3 attitude <--- Feel the usefulness 0.259 *** 4 attitude <--- Feel the ease of use, accessibility 0.083 0.059 5 attitude <--- Age 0.006 0.865 6 attitude <--- Gender -0.011 0.737 7 attitude <--- Income -0.042 0.236 8 attitude <--- Education -0.14 *** Intent to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food: R = 0,535 1 Intent <--- Attitudes toward the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food 0.384 *** 2 Intent <--- Age -0.032 0.296 3 Intent <--- Gender 0.02 0.503 4 Intent <--- Income -0.193 *** 5 Intent <--- Education -0.434 *** 19 Source: from the dissertation's analytical 4.5. Results of multi-group analysis - The results of data analysis show that basically, there is no significant difference in the conclusions about the research hypotheses between the male and female sex groups. - The results of data analysis show that family income significantly affects the hypotheses in the model. In other words, consumers have different family income, the influence of factors in the model to attitudes, intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food will be different. - Similarly, the results of running data show that the impact level of factors in the model on the dependent variable is quite different in different educational groups. CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION OF RESEARCH RESULTS AND SOME PROPOSALS 5.1. Summary of research results With the results of running the structural equation model (SEM), the results of testing hypotheses are shown in the following table: Table 5.1: Summary of research hypothesis testing results No Hypothesis Result No Hypothesis Result 1 H1 Accept 6 H4b Accept 2 H2 Accept 7 H5a Reject 3 H3a Reject 8 H5b Reject 4 H3b Reject 9 H6a Accept 5 H4a Accept 10 H6b Accept Source: from the dissertation's analytical data 5.2. Discuss research results 5.2.1. Discussion about the intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food and the factors influencing the intention to choose traditional markets for fresh food First, hypothesis testing results show that attitude is a crucial factor influencing the intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food. 20 Second: Among demographic factors, two factors strongly influence and oppose the intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food, namely family income, and education level. This shows that the more knowledgeable consumers become, the further away they are from traditional markets. In other words, the more educated the person is, the more likely they are to buy fresh food from their traditional markets, reduction. Third: in terms of intent's R2, we can see that the intent's R2 is at the relative level, equal to 0.535. That is, 53.5% of the change in the intention to choose traditional markets to buy fresh food is explained by factors in the model, specifically the attitude towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food, buy fresh food. 5.2.2. Discuss attitudes and factors influencing attitudes toward traditional market choices for buying fresh food First: The most substantial influence on attitude towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food is the factor that perceives yourself as a traditional person, with a normalized β coefficient of 0.386 p <0.001. Thus, those who have a high sense of themselves as traditional, the higher their attitude towards the behavior of choosing traditional markets to buy fresh food. Second: The second place in terms of the degree of strong and positive influence on attitudes is the sense of usefulness of traditional markets in choosing to buy fresh food. Meanwhile, although "modern" markets have many advantages, traditional markets still have

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