Human resource development on economic management in the provincial - Level administrative agencies in Vietnam

The reality of administrative reform in the provincial state

administrative agencies performing the function of state management of the

economy in Vietnam: According to the survey results from 2012 - 2018, the

average PAR index tends to increase or decrease according to the cycle.

period, specifically from 77.08% (2012), 77.56%, 81.21%, to 85.11%

(2015); 74.64%; 77.72%; then down to 76.92% (2018), especially the rapid

deceleration in 2016 after reaching the peak of 2015 and the score gap

between the first and last provinces is narrowing. Besides, the average value

of the component index "Administrative modernization,"; "Reforming the

administrative apparatus," and "Building and improving the quality of public

officials" over the years are not high. This situation implies that we need to

have the solution of developing labor resources for economic management

in different provincial state administrative agencies for different localities or

localities. At the same time, we need to speed up to build the E-government,

intelligent government, reviewing, streamlining the apparatus, streamlining

staff, improving the quality of human resources for economic management

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ess of advising, planning, and organizing the implementation of policies and mechanisms for the socio-economic management of the province. (4) Ability to propose an optimal plan to use the resources of society effectively. (5) Representing the State to perform public duties in the locality to complete the task of State management economically. (6) A bridge between the State and the people as well as other economic organizations in the province. (7) Being competent, intellectual, having financial, and managerial skills. (8) Experience in organizing, implementing economic activities, handling situations. (9) Having in-depth knowledge about the market economy, development trends of the world economy. Classification: In this thesis, the author ranks according to the nature of 10 the work of cadres and civil servants: leaders, managers; professional civil servants; and administrative staff. Roles: (1) Participate in the process of advising, planning guidelines, strategies, orientations, and policies for economic development; building economic-management mechanism and institution of the province. (2) Bringing policies, guidelines, procedures, policies, plans, and economic development projects into reality at local levels. (3) Gathering legitimate and reasonable aspirations of the people, being a bridge between the State and people and economic organizations, contributing to institutional reform. (4) Make the most effective use and exploitation of provincial resources and opportunities. (5) Carry out management functions such as forecasting, planning, organizing, guiding, urging, inspecting, adjusting, evaluating, summarizing, etc. (6) the decisive factor to ensure the public services are provided in a quality manner. The capacity framework of economic management human resources in provincial public administrations is a collection of competencies classified by several main groups such as (1) Ethical qualities, political qualities; health; age; political theory; Education; foreign Language; Information Technology; experience, etc. (2) Professional capacity. (3) Local knowledge capacity. (4) Self-management capacity. (5) Management organization capacity. 2.2.2. HRD in economic management in the provincial state administrative agency 2.2.2.1. The concept of human resources development in the state regulatory agencies at the provincial level Human resource development of economic management in provincial- level state agencies is the process of implementing policies, recruitment, planning, training, retraining, construction, arrangement, and appointment. , assessing to create a change in quantity and quality in terms of physical strength, intelligence, skills, knowledge, the spirit of each public employee, creating a proper workforce for economic management for local socio- economic development. 2.2.2.2. The objective of developing human resources for economic management Ensuring the leanness and development of economic management human resources with high professional qualifications, rational structure, positive working attitude and motivation, and access to latest methods and skills, advanced management, suitable application of recent technology in 11 management to fulfill the local socio-economic development requirements, to meet the needs of enterprises and people. 2.2.2.3. The subject and method of developing human resources for economic management Depending on the political institutions of each country, the legislative body of the country can be the National Assembly or Parliament to enact laws and legal documents on the development of national human resources; and human resources for economic management in that governmental, provincial state administrative agency. The Government and the Prime Minister issued Decrees, Decisions, Directives, and legal documents governing the development of human resources development for economic management in the provincial state administrative agency. The local governments of provinces will directly manage the development of the economic management workforce in that province's state regulatory agency. With the development method: The managing subject affecting the management object here is the personnel in the agencies, through a number of methods such as economic methods, managerial methods, educational methods, etc. While implementing the management agencies can flexibly combine these methods to achieve the highest efficiency and effectiveness. 2.2.2.4. Content of developing human resources for economic management The content of developing human resources for economic governance in the provincial state administrative agencies include (1) Building mechanisms and policies. (2) Develop human resource planning. (3) Recruitment, arrangement, use, rotation, mobilization, and appointment. (4) Training and development. (5) Checking and evaluating. (6) Motivation 2.2.3. Criteria for assessing human resource development Including criteria groups: quantity criteria; Quality criteria; Structure criteria; Sustainability criteria. 2.3. Factors affecting the development of economic management human resources in provincial state administrative agencies Influencing factors include internal and external factors: State lines, policies, and laws; Requirements of local socio-economic development; Requirements of regulatory reforms; Professional qualifications and capacity of officials and public employees; Organization of scientific labor and cultural working environment; Human resource market in the public sector. 2.4. Experiences of HRD in economic management in the state administrative agencies of some countries and lessons for Vietnam Summary of experience in developing economic management human 12 resources in Japanese, French, Chinese, and Singaporean governmental agencies in order to draw Vietnam some lessons in boosting the labor for economic management in Vietnam’s local agencies: Properly and fully aware of the role, importance, strengthening the effectiveness and efficiency of state management of human resource development for economic management; attracting and recruiting human resources through fair and public contests, expanding recruitment sources; training and retraining of professional competence should be done as soon as candidates are hired through the job and organize training courses instead of substantial certificates; the use and appointment should be active and competitive; Salary and welfare policies by market. CHAPTER 3: CURRENT SITUATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR ECONOMIC-MANAGEMENT IN PROVINCIALLY ADMINISTRATIVE AGENCIES IN VIETNAM 3.1. Overview of the state agencies implementing economic management functions in the provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam 3.1.1. Agencies that perform economic management functions within the provincial public administration in Vietnam In this study, the Ph.D. student focused on researching human resources development in 8 departments among the agencies with state management functions on the economy in the provincial state administrative agencies: Department of Planning and Investment; Department of Finance; Department of Industry and Trade; Department of Agriculture and Rural Development; Department of Construction; Department of Natural Resources and Environment; Department of Science and technology; Transport. 3.1.2. Current situation of devolvement and decentralization of economic management to provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam For nearly three decades, Vietnam has implemented a strong devolvement of economic management for local authorities and state regulatory agencies at the provincial level. The government has assigned more and more rights to localities, the process of devolvement of control takes place in six primary areas: development planning, planning, and investment; budget allocation; land management and use; manage capital and assets at state-owned enterprises; managing non-business units and public services; organizational structure, management of public officials. 3.2. Analyze the current situation of the development of economic 13 management human resources in the provincial state administrative agency in Vietnam 3.2.1. Characteristics of economic management human resources in provincial state governmental agencies in Vietnam 3.2.1.1. Quantity, structure Until 2017, about 27,988 public officials were working in provincial agencies under eight departments with state management function in economics, accounting for about 11% of the total public administrative officials of the country. This number is not evenly distributed among provinces, with Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City being the two cities with the most significant amount of economic management officials with 1,584 and 832, respectively. The number of economic management officials ranged from 394 to 485. From 2012 to 2017, the number of economic management officials in provincial state administrative agencies fluctuated slightly, with an increase and decrease of the following year compared to the previous year from 1.2% to 2.9%. Among these, the percentage of public officials under 30 years old accounts for only a small rate (16%), from 30 to 50 years old accounts for 66%, from 50 to 60 years old accounts for 18%, this is the rate showing the temporary youth but in The future will cause a shortfall of adjacent staff, with the number of women-only accounting for 36%. Considering the nature of the work, the number of managers from the department level to the departmental leadership accounts for a sizeable proportion (47.8%), this is a difference with the developed countries in the world, especially currently, there is a sign of "inflationary of deputy-position" (too much of the deputy officers). By sectors and fields, the number of public officials working in the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development is the largest with about 4,914 (accounting for 18% of the total number of public officials working in state administrative agencies at the provincial level), other departments ranging from 2,520 (Department of Science and Technology, 9%) to 3,402 (Department of Planning and Investment, 12%). 3.2.1.2. Current quality of human resources About the educational level of the contingent of civil servants working in state administrative agencies at the provincial level, most of them are university, the percentage of masters and doctors is increasing. This situation is also unreasonable compared to other developed and developing countries when state management is doing more and more in-depth research. In particular, qualifications sometimes is inadequate 14 with the knowledge in Vietnam. The level of informatics, foreign languages, and civil servant skills of public sector officials in the provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam is still low compared with the requirements of competition, integration, and modernization of the administration. 3.2.2. Current situation on formulating mechanisms and policies Until now, Vietnam has had Law on public officials and legal documents in the state management of human resources development. Additionally, in order to develop human resources for state management in general and for economic management in the provincial state agencies in particular, the provinces have directed the study to draft and promulgate timely documents on cadre management regulations to concretize the regulations on recruitment, employment, appointment, re-appointment, dismissal, resignation, mobilization, rotation, and management of provincial cadres and civil servants. 3.2.3. Current situation of planning, recruiting, using and appointing Attracting and hiring talented people to economic state management agencies in the state agencies at the provincial level are facing specific difficulties which have a significant impact on the efficiency as well as the goals and meanings that the policy has set, such as Determining the criteria for today's talented people is still heavy on qualifications; It has not been implemented synchronously, unified and not associated with the task requirements of each industry, each level, each agency or unit; not closely associated with respect and respect; Objects attracted, recruiting is not diverse. The mobilization and rotation of leading and managerial officials have solved the localized state; supplement more young and trained officials, gradually rejuvenating and improving the quality of the workforce. However, there are many cases of inappropriate recruitment, appointment, and rotation of civil servants in several places as Quang Nam, Hai Duong, Vinh Phuc, Ha Giang, Da Nang, Hau Giang, Ho Chi Minh City, and Thanh Hoa, etc. The issue of developing a master plan for economic management of human resources in the provincial-level state administrative agency is medium. Only about 29-43% of the respondents said that planning work includes planning subjects, planning processes, planning standards, planning, and use, and planning and training is proper. 3.2.4. The reality of training and development The training, retraining and development of labor for economic manangement in provincial state agencies shall comply with regulations. 15 However, the coordination in implementing the tasks of training, fostering and developing among units is still not proper, the task of reviewing needs and formulating plans are not linked, leading to a number of participants not yet reached; the content of the training program is less practical skills, training results have not been fully assessed, the training effectiveness is low. Regarding the system of training institutions, the quality of human resources development in the state administrative agencies at the provincial level is quite large, most of the provinces have cadre training schools but mainly political training rather than professional knowledge and practical skill training. In economic management, ministries and central agencies also have their own training centers and institutes, but their implementation is ineffective and fragmented. 3.2.5. Current situation of assessment work The comments and assessments still revealed many shortcomings: The tasks of individuals and collectives have not been attached to the results of assigned work, so when classifying public officials is not really objective, impartial, and yet reflect the capacity of officials; the organization and implementation of documents on staff assessment to public officials are still slow, not timely, incomplete, and in some cases, not implemented; Evaluation content and criteria are always general and qualitative; also applies to many subjects, not yet identifying each type of agency, unit, and appropriate work nature; a number of provincial state management agencies in charge of economics have not focused on the evaluation before introducing personnel to be planned, promoted, appointed. 3.2.6. Current situation of motivating personnel Salary policy in the state administrative agencies at present, including the system of ladders, tables, ranks, salary grades, and allowances, although there have been many improvements, still has not guaranteed justice as well as been incompatible with job position requirements; the division of personnel ranks to senior experts is still inadequate, heavy on qualifications and seniority; does not work to attract highly professional people; create more inequalities among subjects, industries, and regions; create consequences to encourage civil servants to run for ranks and positions without focusing on improving professional capacity, and discouraging striving for a professional career. Insufficient income earns away the motivation to strive and creativity in the work of economic management public servants, the desire to rise to achieve a high professional level is also very limited. Furthermore, remuneration policies and benefits are 16 unreasonable, inadequate facilities, poor working environment, the phenomenon of brain drain in the public sector are quite common. 3.2.7. Current situation on some criteria for evaluating the development of economic management human resources in provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam - Based on the quality of economic management and business environment construction: Through PCI data from 2011 - 2018, in general, provinces and cities in the top 10 have the best and worst PCI index, not too many changes. The regions in the first group are still: Binh Duong, Da Nang, Vinh Long, Ho Chi Minh City, Lao Cai, etc. in recent years, there has been a definite breakthrough in provinces such as Long An, Dong Thap, Quang Ninh. , Ben Tre, Hanoi, etc. this proves that the human resources for economic management in the provincial state administrative agencies in these localities have improved better. One remarkable result is that the PCI of the best provinces does not change much; even more, it tends to decrease compared to the years before 2011. In contrast, the PCI of the areas at the bottom of the rankings tends to increase and shorten the gap with the top groups; in 2006, the differences between the top and bottom provinces are about 40 points, by 2018, about just 12 points away which shows that the labor resources development in economic management in the provincial state administrative agencies of the localities in the bottom group are showing signs of improvement, but, the top group has not changed too much. - In terms of operating efficiency, policy implementation, and public service delivery: PAPI index over the years 2011 - 2018, in some content indicators, regional focus when classifying based on four groups still has a clear effect, despite the changes in the structure of indicators in 2018. Northern provinces/cities tend to reach the medium-high to highest scores in the indicators of 'Participation of people at the grassroots level,' 'Publicity and transparency in decision making,' and 'Accountability to the people.' In contrast, southern provinces/cities tend to get higher scores in the 'Control of corruption in the public sector' index. In the two new content indexes, Northern provinces/cities tended to achieve higher scores in the 'Electronic governance' content index, but inferior to the southern provinces in the 'Environmental governance' index. These regional differences may suggest a number of solutions for localities to resolve various remaining problems. PAPI results show that local authorities need to consider people's feedback through specific criteria when looking for solutions to improve people's satisfaction with the efficiency of public governance and administration. To meet those legitimate 17 needs, the contingent of cadres and civil servants working on economic management in the provincial state administrative agencies need to have appropriate qualifications and capabilities. - The reality of administrative reform in the provincial state administrative agencies performing the function of state management of the economy in Vietnam: According to the survey results from 2012 - 2018, the average PAR index tends to increase or decrease according to the cycle. period, specifically from 77.08% (2012), 77.56%, 81.21%, to 85.11% (2015); 74.64%; 77.72%; then down to 76.92% (2018), especially the rapid deceleration in 2016 after reaching the peak of 2015 and the score gap between the first and last provinces is narrowing. Besides, the average value of the component index "Administrative modernization,"; "Reforming the administrative apparatus," and "Building and improving the quality of public officials" over the years are not high. This situation implies that we need to have the solution of developing labor resources for economic management in different provincial state administrative agencies for different localities or localities. At the same time, we need to speed up to build the E-government, intelligent government, reviewing, streamlining the apparatus, streamlining staff, improving the quality of human resources for economic management. - Current situation of sustainability: The survey results show that the development of human resources for economic management in the provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam has not been sustainable, not guaranteed to meet the human resource supply for the current local economic development as well as the local and national development needs in the future. 3.3. Overall assessment of the status of development of economic management human resources in the provincial state administrative agency in Vietnam Achievements: There are a large number of people with a diverse and abundant structure in terms of training, quality has been increasingly improved, the structure of human resources across sectors and fields is quite uniform, most all have university degrees and the number of graduate students is higher and higher; organizational reform has been strongly and drastically implemented; assessment of economic management officials has always been concerned by the provincial state administrative agencies, gradually improving the quality and efficiency; the attraction and recruitment activities have been implemented more and more synchronously and consistently, in association with the task requirements of each industry, each 18 level, each agency, and unit; training and retraining are focused on the job position, leadership, and management standards. Limitations and weaknesses: Firstly, mechanisms and policies on human resources for economic management in provincial state administrative agencies have not had any breakthrough. Secondly, human resource planning and recruitment has not been renewed. The number of sources put into the planning is not rational, there is the phenomenon of both redundancy and lack, "suspended planning". Thirdly, the employment, appointment and rotation of economic management human resources in provincial state administrative agencies are still inadequate. Fourthly, the training and development of human resources is still limited. The computer and foreign language skills of economic management public servants are still low compared to the requirements of competition, integration and modernization of the administrative system, failing to meet the socio- economic development needs of localities and being incommensurate with their degrees and certificates. Fifthly, the assessment of human resources for economic management still reveals many limitations; many criteria to assess civil servants are qualitative; sometimes the evaluation is perfunctory. Sixthly, the mechanism of motivating human resources for economic management in the provincial state administrative agencies has not really been paid attention. Wages of civil servants working in economic management at provincial state administrative agencies are really low, make them live beyond their means. Seventhly, the grouping in the development of economic management human resources in the provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam is not really clear, leading to the unreasonable structure of civil servants in economic management between branches, localities and overcrowding in volume. Eighthly, the development of economic management human resources in the provincial state administrative agencies in Vietnam has not been intrinsically sustainable, and has not met the human resource supply for local economic development in the present as well as the development needs of the locality and the nation in the future. Causes of the restriction: (1) The inconsistency and not strict of the legal system on civil servants. (2) The policy of developing labor resources for economic management in the provincial state administrative agencies has not kept up with the changes in the economic situation. (3) Working conditions, facilities, technological infrastructure, and equipment for cadres and civil servants working on economic management and public service 19 activities are still limited. (4) The budget for salary payment for cadres and civil servants is still low. (5) Weak training and retraining institutions, lack of appropriate investment. (6) Institutional management of the market economy is outdated and not synchronized; High-quality human resources are both lacking an

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