In the first EFA run, the extracted variance value was 70.5% and

8 factors had Eigenvalue ≥ 1, KMO = 0.668, Sig = 0.000 <0.05 so the

observed variables are linearly correlated with the factor face. However,

at a rotating matrix table during the first EFA run, there are three

observations as VC3, VC4, SK5 does not guarantee the discrimination

(Measured in 2 factors and does not guarantee a difference in the load

factor from 0.3 or higher), so these 3 variables must be removed

(Appendix 2).

The second EFA run (after eliminating 3 observed variables VC3,

VC4, SK5), KMO = 0.680 (Table 3.5), there are 7 factors extracted at

Eigenvalue is 1,071 and the total variance extracted is 69,536%. Thus,

KMO satisfies the condition that 0.5

exploratory factor analysis (EFA) method is suitable for real data. In

particular, 69,536% of the change of factors is explained by the

observed variables in the model (Appendix 3), Sig = 0.000 <0.05 so the

observed variables are linearly correlated with the representative factor.

(Table 3.6).

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is
continues to solve the following issues:
Firstly, theoretically:
Supplementing and clarifying the theory of rural residents'
participation in new rural construction, focusing on clarifying issues:
7
concept, role, level of participation; content, and mode of participation
of rural residents in new rural construction.
Secondly, practically:
- What is the actual participation of rural residents in the Red
River Delta in the process of new rural construction?
- The results and limitations and causes limiting the participation of
rural residents in the construction of new rural areas in the Red River delta;
- Considering the relationship between the participation of rural
residents and the results of new rural construction in the Red River Delta.
CHAPTER 2: THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS
OF THE INVOLVEMENT OF RURAL RESIDENTS IN NEW
RURAL CONSTRUCTION
2.1. Theory of application for research
2.1.1. Theory of involvement
From the fundamental theory of the step of citizen participation in
the Arnstein 1969 study, later studies have been applied to the study to
provide a theoretical basis through the practice of participation in many
fields. The difference of social life and the concept of participation is that
people participate in all aspects of social life equally within the framework
of the law; They have access to, share information, discuss, discuss and
participate in the decision-making process, and contribute resources to
implement that decision.
2.1.2. The theory of "stakeholders":
If managers value stakeholders in the concept of stakeholders, it
is successful to organize the implementation of issues in the
management that will succeed and grow more sustainably (Fontaine,
2006). Any stakeholder is more listened to and engaged as much if they
have higher prominence.
In the national target program of new rural construction,
stakeholders can be named rural residents, local governments,
8
organizations, and economic units stationed in the locality, etc. In which
rural residents have the role of a host-they are both subject to
performance, both the subject of development benefit, if they are
valued, more listened to, and participated in many (highlights), the
results of the program will be higher and more sustainable. Therefore,
the application of stakeholder theory to highlight the participation of
rural residents in implementing the new rural construction program in an
active, dynamic. Facilitate and help them to perform well the central
role of rural development. Among the stakeholders to the new rural
building process, rural residents are central to requiring special attention
to this subject because their involvement has a huge influence on the
results of new rural criteria.
2.1.3. Theory of Collective Action:
The theory of collective action is referred to as the synergy of
many individuals involved in certain work to form collective action for
the common good of the collective (Tarrow 1988, Sandler 1992). This is
one of the theories that can explain the participation of rural residents to
form collective action when they perform work for the benefit of the
community.
In the process of new rural construction in Vietnam, rural
residents' involvement is considered as collective action as they perform
the work, the criteria in the new rural construction. Because the new
rural criteria are aimed at the comprehensive development of rural areas,
these criteria relate to the rights and obligations of rural residents. They
work together to effectively implement production plans. Helping each
other products safely and preserve environmental sanitation.
Implementing sustainable production links; develop reasonable and
modern rural infrastructure and effectively exploit production activities
and people's daily life, etc.
2.2. The theoretical basis of new rural construction and
participation of rural residents in new rural construction
9
2.2.1. New rural concept and new rural construction
2.2.2. Participation of rural residents in new rural construction
2.2.3. Methods of participation of rural residents in new rural
construction
2.2.4. The content of rural residents participating in the
implementation of the criteria in the new rural construction
2.3. The practical basis for the involvement of rural residents
in the new rural construction
2.3.1. Practical involvement of Rural residents in some new rural
models in the world
2.3.2. Practices of rural residents' participation in the process of
building new rural areas in some localities in Vietnam
2.3.3. Experience lessons for the new rural building process in
the Red River delta region
- Promote the internal strength of the people to implement the
criteria in the process of new rural construction, the rural residents need
to be involved in building planning, deciding on the type of
construction, which project needs a priority to advance, publicly discuss,
design decisions and supervision of construction and testing of works.
- Vocational training for rural workers, transfer of technical
advances, new breeds, science technology to help farmers increase crop
and livestock productivity, build specialized commodity areas, develop
products to increase revenues import, and support the expansion of
stable and sustainable agricultural consumption markets.
- It is necessary to create favorable conditions to encourage the
participation of rural residents themselves in the work of new rural
construction. They must be truly owned. Practical benefits of rural residents
must be cared for and created mechanisms to help them proactively develop
their economy, protect the ecological environment, develop infrastructure
and improve the cultural and spiritual life in a healthy way.
- Need to promote self-reliance, initiative, and creativity of rural
residents. These characteristics enable rural residents to participate more
10
fully, accurately, and responsibly to create good collective actions in
implementing new rural construction criteria related to their interests.
- Need to raise awareness about the role of rural residents in building
new rural areas. They are the center, the ones who directly implement and
directly benefit and play a decisive role in the effectiveness of the
implementation of the criteria and the sustainability of the national target
program on new rural construction.
CHAPTER 3: SITE CHARACTERISTICS AND
RESEARCH METHODS
3.1. The natural and socio-economic conditions of the Red
River Delta affect the participation of rural residents
3.2. Research methods
3.2.1. Approach and analytical framework
a. Approach: The thesis has used the following main weighing
method:
- Access to policies and institutions: Through the study of
guidelines and policies related to the participation of rural residents in
new rural construction.
- Participatory approach: Participatory research, exchange, and
surveys of households and management staff to collect and assess the
participation of rural residents in rural construction.
- Territorial approach: Studying the participation of rural
residents in the construction of new rural areas in different territories of
the Red River Delta, focusing on communes that have built new rural
areas for comparison of the similarities and differences in the
participation of rural residents in the construction of new rural areas
between territories.
b. Analytical framework
Inherited the scale of the participation of previous studies, the
author is expected to interview questions, conduct an interview directly
with the organizational experts, implement the new Rural Building
Program (Chairman, vice-Chairman of the commune's committee) and the
households according to the questions on the questionnaire have been
designed for information including:
11
3.2.2. Information collection and processing methodology
- Data:
Research data is collected from two sources: secondary data
sources are collected from reports, research results, officially published
data of specialized agencies/units; Primary data sources were collected
by the author through interviews and surveys within the scope of the
thesis.
Collecting secondary Data: The figures are gathered from published
materials such as Documents of the new Rural Coordination Office, Ministry
of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environment, year of statistics, collected through works that have been
published on the internet, etc
Deep interview: The author selects the Non-probability sampling (as a
judgment) to identify the subject to participate in the study. But the pre-
defined sample selection criteria and strict adherence to the standards should
mistake can be minimized. In this study, the provinces of Thai Binh, Nam
Dinh, Ha Nam, Hung yen, Hai Duong have conditions to develop similar
rural areas, so the authors choose Thai Binh as Representative; Ninh Binh
Participation of rural
residents
- Receive and share information
- Discuss, discuss and make
decisions
- Resource contributions
- In supervisory activities
- Implement planning criteria
- Implementing the criteria of socio-economic
infrastructure
- Implementing economic criteria and organizing
production
- Implementing the criteria of landscape,
environment, and safety in production
Results of new rural construction:
- Family economy, income after the new rural construction process
- Rural infrastructure after the new rural construction process
- Lifestyle and landscape of rural environment after new rural
construction (Long et al., 2009)
- Rural residents’ satisfaction level of results achieved in new rural
construction
12
and Vinh Phuc have a similar, more complex terrain, which is harder to
develop in rural infrastructure, so the author selects Ninh Binh as
Representative; Hanoi and Bac Ninh have relatively flat terrain, so the
author selects Hanoi as representative; Quang Ninh and Hai Phong have
conditions for developing rural areas similar to the author of Quang
Ninh province as a representative to get more survey vouchers in Quang
Ninh for quantitative research.
In qualitative research, the author directly contacts and interview
10 Chairman, vice-Chairman of the commune's committee in 3
provinces and cities (Thai Binh, Ninh Binh, Hanoi) is the management
and organization officer, implementing a new rural building program in
the commune to understand about the participation of rural residents and
20 households in different communes has reached new rural in 3
provinces, cities (Thai Binh, Ninh Binh, Hanoi) (interviews that take
place from January 01/2017 to January 06/2018). Each interview takes
from 30-45 minutes. Through the interviewing process, the author
brings new ideas and findings from previous interviews into the next
interview. Finally, discovery ideas are used by the author for data
analysis. The author stopped the interviewing activities when there were
no new ideas about the participation of rural residents in building new
rural areas.
Thus, with the analyzes obtained from the review of previous
studies combined with qualitative research practice, the author has
generalized the descriptive variables of rural population participation
and the results description variables. New rural construction is as
follows:
Table 3.3: Descriptive variables of rural residents' participation in
new rural construction
Variables Symbol Interpretation
Based on
select
variables
Rural
residents
receive
information
TN
Through attending the meeting; leaflets;
media; commune and village officials Hourdequin,
2012; Qualitative
research
Proactively explore and listen to explanations
about new rural construction
Proactively receive full information about
13
Variables Symbol Interpretation
Based on
select
variables
new rural construction.
Rural
residents
contribute
their opinions.
YK
Contribute comments on rural planning
schemes
Finsterbusch
1987; Day, 1997;
Qualitative
research
Opinions on rural infrastructure development, etc
Comments on product development plans,
etc
Discuss, discuss contribution level
Voting on contents of new rural construction
of the commune
Rural
residents
contribute to
resources.
VC
Contribute the land Finsterbusch
1987; Qualitative
research
Donate money
Contribute labor days
Other Forms
Rural
residents
participate in
monitoring.
GS
Exercise right to direct supervision in the
process of new rural construction Conrad 2011;
Danielsen 2009;
Qualitative
research
Join local organizations to exercise
supervision
Exercise right to supervise through the
delegates of the People's Council
Rural residents
participate in
improving
livelihoods.
SK
Participate in agricultural, forestry, and
fishery extension classes.
Ellis 2000;
Cramb 2004;
Aref 2011; Saidu
2014; Mak 2017;
Qualitative
research
Join the consolidation and exchange of plots to
develop production
Improve sustainable production (conversion
of suitable crops and livestock)
Application of science and technology in
production
Linking and actively consuming agricultural
products
Rural
residents
participate in
activities to
create
landscapes
and
environmental
sanitation.
MT
Use clean water
Gomez, 2002;
Aylett, 2010;
Qualitative
research
Implement safety in production and
processing of agricultural products; food
safety, etc
Use sanitary toilets, create landscapes.
Garbage collection and general hygiene
Table 3.4: Descriptive variables on new rural construction outcomes
Variables Symbol Interpretation Based on select
variables
Results of
new rural
construction
KQ
The family economy has had many
changes and increased incomes.
Bachmann 2007; Long
et al., 2009; Laah
2013; Nkwake 2013;
Looney, 2015;
The rural infrastructure is fully
developed and more convenient.
14
The village is cleaner, more civilized. Chen, 2016; Qualitative
research Rural residents are satisfied with the
results achieved in new rural
construction.
Survey: Based on the list of households and the suggestion of the
commune leaders, the author chose the owner over 18 years old, understand
Vietnamese, and could take time to answer the questionnaire. Authors
choose to combine both forms of direct and indirect voting: Direct
investigation forms, appointment time for the answer slip. Indirect form,
send the inquiry by mail to the homestay (accompanied by funding to send
the courier back). With the way to set up the questionnaire to AutoFill, the
information obtained is quite adequate and the response rate is high, meet
the requirements of obtaining 384 of the expected investigation slip.
From the documents and data collected, the thesis uses SPSS
software (software supporting primary data processing and analysis) to
process data for analysis.
Sampling in quantitative research:
After the interview process in qualitative research to study the
participation of rural residents in the construction of new rural areas in
the Red River Delta and reaffirmed the scale reviewed from the
previous study. The author continues to apply the modeling formula of
Hair et al. 1998 to achieve 95% accuracy as N = Z2(pq)/e2 =
1,962(0,5*0,5)/0.052 = 384 observations, Inside:
N: Sample size
Z: Standard deviation with an acceptable level of confidence (95%)
p: The estimated value of changes in the overall (50%)
q: 100 - p
e: The wrong number allowed (5%)
The author applied a sample of 384 households to ensure it could be
interpreted as an indicator of the overall index with a 95% confidence level.
There are two groups of sampling methods, probability, and non-probability.
Methods of probability sampling include simple, systematic random
selection, class selection, cluster selection. Non-probability sampling methods
include convenient sample selection, sample selection according to subjective
evaluation, sample introduction. However, due to limited time and resources,
15
the author uses a convenient sampling method, which means selecting objects
that are accessible in representative communes in four provinces (Thai Binh,
Ninh Binh, Ha Noi, Quang Ninh) in the Red River Delta, different from the
above-interviewed communes for the purpose of obtaining a wide range of
respondents and other respondents. survey questionnaire.
3.2.3. Methods of information analysis
a. Qualitative analysis method
Data collected from the interviews are coded into topics, the
concepts are repeated many times until saturation to discover and
supplement observation variables following theoretical models and
practical conditions.
Based on a reference to the scale of people's participation in
previous studies combined with the use of qualitative research methods
in-depth interviews on the status of participation of rural residents in
new rural construction In the Red River Delta, the thesis offers some
additional assessments on the scale of rural residents' participation in
new rural construction.
b. Quantitative analysis method
- Descriptive statistics
- Comparative statistics
- Test the quality of the scale
The survey model has 6 independent groups of factors measuring
the participation of rural residents with 24 observed variables, and 01
dependent factors measuring the results of new rural construction with 4
observed variables. Cronbach's Alpha method is used to evaluate the
reliability of the scale, the results of running Cronbach's Alpha have 7
scales that ensure good quality with 28 characteristic variables
(Appendix 1), in which: Cronbach's Alpha value of the representative
variables are greater than 0.6 and less than 0.95 so the questions of the
scale do not have duplication in measurement, proving that these scales
are of good quality.
- Analysis of discovery factors
Through Cronbach’s Alpha test analysis, the model has 7 quality
assurance scales with 28 characteristic variables summarized in Table 3.5:
16
Table 3.5: Typical variables and good quality scales
Order Scale Featured variable Cronbach’s Alpha
of the scale
1 TN TN1, TN2, TN3 0.748
2 YK YK1, YK2, YK3, YK4, YK5 0.767
3 VC VC1, VC2, VC3, VC4 0.642
4 GS GS1, GS2, GS3 0.670
5 SK SK1, SK2, SK3, SK4, SK5 0.602
6 MT MT1, MT2, MT3, MT4 0.655
7 KQ KQ1, KQ2, KQ3, KQ4 0.777
Source: author calculations on SPSS
Based on the results of testing this scale, the author continues to
use SPSS performing the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) analysis.
Cronbach's Alpha test Results No variables were eliminated, the model
also had 6 quality scales with 24 characteristic variables included in the
EFA test to measure 6 elements. The author evaluators The suitability of
the model with the actual data through the KMO test.
In the first EFA run, the extracted variance value was 70.5% and
8 factors had Eigenvalue ≥ 1, KMO = 0.668, Sig = 0.000 <0.05 so the
observed variables are linearly correlated with the factor face. However,
at a rotating matrix table during the first EFA run, there are three
observations as VC3, VC4, SK5 does not guarantee the discrimination
(Measured in 2 factors and does not guarantee a difference in the load
factor from 0.3 or higher), so these 3 variables must be removed
(Appendix 2).
The second EFA run (after eliminating 3 observed variables VC3,
VC4, SK5), KMO = 0.680 (Table 3.5), there are 7 factors extracted at
Eigenvalue is 1,071 and the total variance extracted is 69,536%. Thus,
KMO satisfies the condition that 0.5 <KMO <1 means that the
exploratory factor analysis (EFA) method is suitable for real data. In
particular, 69,536% of the change of factors is explained by the
observed variables in the model (Appendix 3), Sig = 0.000 <0.05 so the
observed variables are linearly correlated with the representative factor.
(Table 3.6).
17
Thus, the results of the discovery factor analysis show that the
observations in the first 6 factors have converged in 7 factors and the
characteristic variables have factor load coefficient in the range of 0.685
- 0.856 (Appendix 4) (Satisfying the condition that the selected value
should be greater than 0.3 with the sample size> 350) (Dinh Phi Ho,
2011).
Factors from 1 to 5 are not disturbed, so they retain their names as in
the original model are YK, VC, TN, SK, and GS.
Factor 7 named "rural residents involved in creating landscape
and environmental sanitation activities" (MT), which is an MT3
observation, MT4.
Particularly factor 6 is a new factor with 02 observations from the
variable "rural residents involved in creating landscape and
environmental sanitation activities" in the environmental criteria in new
rural construction. The author named this factor "safe in production and
processing of agricultural products; food safety, etc” (AT) includes
observation of MT1, MT2.
Through a quality inspection and analysis of the discovery factor,
the author identified 7 scales representing the participation of rural
residents, and 1 scale representing the new rural construction results
with a total of 25 specific variables are summarized in Table 3.7.
Re-testing Cronbach’s Alpha of the new 7 factors results in a
value greater than 0.6, so the scale is evaluated with good quality,
meaning that the new factors ensure the reliability of the scale
(Appendix 5).
Thus, the results of the second-factor analysis, there are 7 factors
achieving convergence and discriminant values with high load
coefficients (in the range of 0.618 - 0.883) satisfying the condition that the
load coefficient must be greater than 0.5 (Appendix 4).
- Regression analysis
18
To identify the relationship between the participation of rural
residents and the results of new rural construction, the overall
correlation model has the form:
KQ = f (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7)
In which KQ is a dependent variable; F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, F6, F7:
Independent variables.
Considering the relationship between the independent variable
from F1 to F7 and the dependent variable (results of new rural
construction), the author performed by linear regression equation:
KQ = b0 + b1F1 + b2F2 + b3F3 + b4F4 + b5F5 + b6F6 + b7F7 + ei
In particular, variables put into in regression analysis are
determined by calculating the factor Scores.
For independent variables, SPSS is available in Data View when
analyzing the second discovery factor (after eliminating bad variables),
resulting in the data view in the interface as Appendix 6, in which:
FAC1_1 is F1, FAC2_1 is F2, FAC3_1 is F3, FAC4_1 is F4, FAC5_1 is
F5, FAC6_1 is F6, FAC7_1 is F7 was calculated according to the factor
score calculation.
For the dependent variable KQ, the author also calculates the
score by calculating the factor score and gets the dependent variable
result in the data view interface as in Appendix 7, in which: FAC1_2 is
the KQ that has been calculated by the factor score calculation.
Perform multivariate regression analysis in SPSS to test the
relationship between the participation of rural residents and the results
of new rural construction in the Red River Delta Region.
CHAPTER 4: THE STATUS OF PARTICIPATION OF
RURAL RESIDENTS OF THE RED RIVER DELTA IN NEW
RURAL CONSTRUCTION
4.1. The situation of new rural construction in the Red River
Delta Region
4.2. The status of participating methods
19
4.2.1. The status of the participation method of rural residents of
the Red River Delta Region
4.2.2. The status of participation method of rural residents at the
survey points
4.3. The status of participation in the implementation of the
new rural construction criteria of rural residents of the Red River
delta (participation content)
4.3.1. Rural residents participate in the implementation of new
rural planning criteria.
4.3.2. Rural residents participate in the implementation of criteria
for socio-economic infrastructure.
4.3.3. Rural residents participate in the implementation of
economic criteria and production organization.
4.3.4. Rural residents participate in the implementation of criteria
for landscape, environment, and production safety.
4.4. The relationship between the involvement of rural
residents with new rural construction results
From the actual study of the participation of rural residents in the
new rural construction and the results of running t

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