Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh Tổng hợp

53. CỤM HIỆN TẠI PHÂN TỪ VÀ CỤM QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ LÀ GÌ?

Cụm phân từ thường bắt đầu bằng một phân từ ví dụ:

 Can you see that boy standing over there next to John?

 Trees planted by us a few days ago died because nobody watered them.

 People eating more vegetables than meat are considered to be healthier.

 Have you ever heard any songs written by Alan Walker yet?

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e enemies. 7. Let our English __________ (improve) by studying harder every day. 8. Famous people avoid __________ (get) attention from paparazzi. Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 97 41. THÊM “ING” HAY THÊM “TO”? MỘT SỐ TRƯỜNG HỢP ĐẶC BIỆT 1. STOP: Sau động từ stop có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. Stop V-ing Đang làm việc gì đó, thì dừng hẳn luôn, không còn thực hiện nữa. - He has stopped smoking for 3 years. to-V nguyên mẫu Đang làm việc gì đó thì tạm ngừng lại để làm hành động khác. - I saw him stop to buy some flowers. Maybe he bought them for his girlfriend. THỰC HÀNH: 1. The teacher told us to stop _____________ (make) noise. He looked very angry. 2. He was writing something at the table, but then he stopped _____________ (smoke). 3. We should stop _____________ (play) computer games like this because it affects our studying and it is time-consuming, too. 4. When he finishes working, he stops _____________ (have) lunch. After that, he comes back to work. 5. He stopped _____________ (shout) when he realized that she did not care about his getting angry. 2. TRY: Sau động từ TRY có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. Try V-ing Diễn đạt ý thử làm việc gì đó. - My mother has just cooked a new dish. She asked me to try eating it. to-V nguyên mẫu Cố gắng và nổ lực làm việc gì đó. - I tried to learn English as much as possible to be better. THỰC HÀNH 1. He tries _____________ (study) hard to pass the exam. 2. A: The photocopier doesn’t seem to be working. B: Try _____________ (press) the green button. 3. I tried _____________ (move) the table but it was too heavy. 4. It was too hot in the room. They tried _____________ (open) the window hoping that cooler air from outside could make things better. 5. He tried _____________ (look) on his friend’s paper, but his teacher saw him. 6. The old window was stuck and it wouldn’t move no matter how hard I tried _____________ (open) it. 7. They are trying _____________ (get) a loan from the bank, but their bad credit doesn’t leave them much hope. Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 98 3. REMEMBER: Sau động từ REMEMBER có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. THỰC HÀNH: 1. Please remember _____________ (lock) the door before you go out. 2. Sorry for paying the money back late because I don’t remember _____________ (borrow) you any money. 3. When you see Mandy, remember _____________ (tell) her my regards, won’t you? 4. Someone has taken my bag. I clearly remember _____________ (put) by the window and now it has gone. 5. My mother didn’t remember _____________ (buy) the flowers, so she bought them again. 6. Remember _____________ (study and do) your homework before school. 7. I remember _____________ (meet) them already, but now I can’t remember their names. 4. FORGET: Sau động từ FORGET có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. Forget V-ing Quên đã làm chuyện gì đó. - Oh no! I forgot buying milk. to-V nguyên mẫu Quên là chút nữa (hoặc tương lai)sẽ làm gì đó. - Don’t forget to write me soon. THỰC HÀNH: 1. Don’t forget _____________ (pick up) some juice on your way home. 2. Have you studied it before? I have forgotten _____________ (learn) it. 3. I have to go home immediately. I forgot _____________ (turn) off the gas stove. 4. I forget _____________ (lock) the door, but I’m sure I must have locked it. 5. Don’t forget _____________ (write) your name on your test paper. If not, your test will not be graded. 6. Oh! I forgot _____________ (buy) some fruit on my way home. Now I’ll go and get it immediately. Just wait a moment. 7. Oh! You forgot _____________ (turn) on the power button, so how can you print the document? Remember V-ing Nhớ đã làm việc gì đó rồi - Your keys. I remember seeing them somewhere. to-V nguyên mẫu Nhớ để làm gì đó - Please remember to post the letter for me. (=Don’t forget to post it.) Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 99 5. REGRET: Sau động từ REGRET có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. THỰC HÀNH: 1. I regret _____________ (tell) Julie my secret; now she has told everyone. 2. I regret _____________ (inform) you that your application has been rejected. 3. She regrets _____________ (not follow) her parents’ advice, which led to this serious consequence. 4. They regret __________ (tell) their friend about the fact that he has failed the driving test. 5. Now she regret _____________ (have said) it. 6. I regret _____________ (leave) school at the age of 14. It was a big mistake of my life. 7. The doctor regrets _____________ (tell) him about his health status. 6. NEED: Sau động từ NEED có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. THỰC HÀNH 1. He needs _____________ (work) harder if he wants to make progress. 2. It’s a difficult problem. It needs _____________ (think) about very carefully. 3. I don’t need _____________(come) to the party, do I? 4. Do you think my jacket needs _____________ (clean)? 5. She isn’t able to look after herself. She needs _____________ (look) after. 6. The windows are very dirty. You need _____________ (clean) them now. 7. The windows are dirty. They need _____________ (clean). 8. This knife needs _____________ (sharpen) 9. I need _____________ (buy) some flowers and plants to decorate our house. 10. You don’t need ____________ (iron) that shirt. It doesn’t need ___________ (iron). Regret V-ing Hối tiếc vì đã làm cái gì đó. - I now regret saying what I said. to-V nguyên mẫu Lấy làm tiếc vì phải làm gì đó. - We regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you a job. Need V-ing Vật gì đó cần được thực hiện. - This house needs repainting. to-V nguyên mẫu Ai đó cần thiết làm gì đó. - I need to take more exercise. Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 100 7. MEAN: Sau động từ MEAN có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. THỰC HÀNH 1. Failure the national exam this year means _____________ (learn) one more year. 2. I don’t mean _____________ (go) out tonight as I want to finish my homework. 3. This injury means him _____________ (miss) next’s week game. 4. I mean _____________ (tell) you this, but I think you shouldn’t know it. 5. Do you mean _____________ (help) me do this project? 6. Knowing English well means _____________ (have) more opportunity to have better jobs in the future, doesn’t it? 7. I never mean _____________ (go) study abroad. 8. MEAN: Sau động từ MEAN có thể thêm “ing” hoặc thêm “to”. Tuy nhiên mỗi trường hợp sẽ có nghĩa khác nhau. THỰC HÀNH 1. My mother told me to go on _____________ (write) my essay when I have finished doing maths. 2. My team has gone on _____________ (work) on this project for weeks. 3. Whichever page you are on, go on _____________ (read) the next chapter. 4. They intend to go on ____________ (read) the entire part of this chapter. 5. She talked about her son, the she went on _____________ (talk) about her daughter. 6. She went to _____________ (talk) her holiday all evening. Mean V-ing Có nghĩa là - This new order means working ocertime. to-V nguyên mẫu Có ý định - I mean to go out tonight. Go on V-ing Làm liên tục, tiếp tục làm - My father goes on working until he’s 60. to-V nguyên mẫu chuyển qua làm cái khác - Go on to paint the wall when you have finished painting the windows. Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 101 42. USED TO VÀ GET USED TO 1. USED TO: được dùng để nói về những trạng thái hay hành động trong quá khứ mà bây giờ đã không còn thực hiện nữa. Có thể hiểu USED TO có nghĩa là ĐÃ TỪNG, VỐN ĐÃ TỪNG 2. Cách chia Ví dụ: 1. I used to swim once a day. 2. I didn’t use to have a nice house. 3. Did you use to be a teacher? – Yes, I did. **Lưu ý: would cũng có thể dùng giống như used to để nói về hay hành động trong quá khứ mà bây giờ đã không còn thực hiện nữa, tuy nhiên không dùng với những động từ trạng thái. 1. I used to play soccer very well. (= I would play soccer very well.) 2. I used to have long hair. (NOT: I would have long hair.) 3. I used to love playing badminton. (NOT: I would love playing badminton.) 3. BE USED TO = GET USED TO = BE ACCUSTOMED TO = GET ACCUSTOMED TO được dùng để nói về những gì các bạn thấy bình thường với bạn, hay bạn đã dần quen với việc gì đó. Có thể hiểu những từ trên đây là QUEN VỚI, TỪ TỪ QUEN DẦN VỚI Ví dụ: 1. I’m used to getting up early, so I don’t mind doing it. (Tôi quen với việc thức dậy sớm, vì thế tôi không phiền khi làm vậy đâu.) 2. Lucy isn’t used to staying up late, so she’s very tired today. (Lucy không quen với việc thức khuya, nên hôm nay cô ấy rất mệt.) 3. Mary was used to driving to school = Mary was accustomed to driving to school. (Mary đã quen với việc lái xe đi học.) 4. Soon I’ll be get used to driving in London, I won’t be frightened. (Một khi mình quen với việc lái xe ở Luân Đôn, mình sẽ không sợ nữa) 5. Are your children used to walking a lot? (Mấy đứa con của bạn tập đi nhiều chưa?) 6. I’ve lived in the UK almost all my life, so I’m used to rain. (Tôi đã sống ở Vương Quốc Anh gần hết cuộc đời rồi, do vậy mà tôi quen với mua ở đây rồi.) Subject + used to + động từ nguyên mẫu am / is / are / was / were used to get / got used to am/ is / are / was / were accustomed to get / got accustomed to + verb-ing Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 102 THỰC HÀNH 1. Hãy hoàn thành câu với used to + động từ nguyên mẫu, hoặc nếu có thể hãy sử dụng would, nếu không thì dùng used to. 1. I / have short hair when I was a teenager. __________________________________________________________________ 2. We / go to the same little café for lunch every day when I was a student. __________________________________________________________________ 3. She / love playing badminton before she hurt her shoulder. __________________________________________________________________ 4. He / walk along the beach every evening before bed. __________________________________________________________________ 5. I / always lose when I played chess with my father. __________________________________________________________________ 6. She / be able to dance very well. __________________________________________________________________ 7. My grandfather / drink a cup of coffee after dinner every night. __________________________________________________________________ 8. Mike / not have a car. __________________________________________________________________ 9. We / live in Brazil. __________________________________________________________________ 10. My family / often go to the countryside for the weekend when I was young. __________________________________________________________________ 2. Hãy hoàn thành câu với used to + verb-ing 1. I / live in Rach Gia City, so the crowds don’t bother me anymore. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. She / live in Tokyo subway, so she doesn’t get lost. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. He / not deal with animals, so he’ a bit sacred of the dogs. ___________________________________________________________________ 4. John / drive in heavy traffic. ___________________________________________________________________ Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 103 5. I / wake up in the night with my baby. I drink lots of coffee. ___________________________________________________________________ 6. It was very hard to get up at five when I started this job because I / not it. ___________________________________________________________________ 7. She / drink a lot of coffee, so she doesn’t have a problem with going to sleep afterwards. ___________________________________________________________________ 8. I’ve lived here in Hokkaido for three years, but I / not the snow. ___________________________________________________________________ 9. He / do a lot of exercise, so a ten-mile walk is easy for him. ___________________________________________________________________ 10. Julie’s flat is in the center of London. When she visits a friend in the countryside. It’s difficult for her to sleep because she / not the quiet. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 3. Khoanh tròn đáp án đúng để hoàn thành câu 1. She used ____________ badminton on the weekend. A. playing B. play C. to playing D. to not play 2. They ____________ have long hair. A. would B. used to C. get used to D. are accustomed to 3. My mother ____________ a lot of coffee in the evening, so she doesn’t find it difficult to go sleep afterwards. A. used to drinking B. gets used to drinking C. used to drink D. is accustomed to drink 4. John ____________ go swimming twice a week. A. used to B. gets used to C. would D. Both A and C are correct 5. She ____________ up late, so she feels exhausted today. A. isn’t use to staying B. didn’t used to stay C. didn’t use to staying D. doesn’t get used to staying 6. They were used ____________ vegetarian food. A. to eat B. eating C. to eating D. eat 7. The man is accustomed____________ his newspaper in the morning. A. read B. reading C. not read D. to reading Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 104 43. MỜI MỌC VỚI WOULD LIKE (MUỐN) 1. Khẳng định I would like =I’d like danh từ (n) I would like I’d like She would like She’d like They would like =They’d like some orange juice. a drink. noodles. 2. Câu hỏi What would you like? What would you like? What would she like? What would he like?  I’d like some noodles.  She’d like to sit down.  He’d like a hot drink. Would you like some orange juice? to sit down? Would you like some orange juice?  Yes, I’d love to.  No, I wouldn’t. THỰC HÀNH 1. Hãy dùng cấu trúc would like? để hoàn thành câu. 1. (you/ some orange juice?)  Would you like some orange juice? 2. (he / a hot drink?)  _________________________________________ 3. (What/they?)  _________________________________________ 4. (she/a cold drink?)  __________________________________________ 5. (they / some noodles?)  _________________________________________ 2. Trả lời cho các câu hỏi sau đây 1. Would you like some tea?  Yes, I’d love to. 2. Would he like to sit down? No, ______________________________ 3. Would he like some noodles?  Yes, _____________________________ 4. Would she like some water?  No, ______________________________ 5. Would they like some orange juice?  Yes, _____________________________ 3. Hãy khoanh tròn đáp án đúng để hoàn thành câu 1. Would you like_______ orange juice? A. a B. some C. any D. to 2. Would you like _______ sit down? A. at B. from C. to D. a 3. _______ he like some noodles? – No, he wouldn’t. A. Would B. Do C. Does D. Is 4. Would you like some orange juice? A. No, I don’t. B. Yes, I wouldn’t C. No, I would D. Yes, I’d love to Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 105 44.WOULD YOU MIND?, DO YOU MIND? 1. Chúng ta sử dụng Would you mind và Do you mind để nhờ ai đó làm gì đó hoặc xin phép một cách lịch sự. Thường thường Would you mind sẽ lịch sự hơn Do you mind. 2. Cách sử dụng 1. Cách 1: Hỏi người đối diện có phiền không nếu ai đó làm việc gì đó. 1. Would you mind if I used your cell phone now? 2. Do you mind if I use your cell phone now? Lưu ý: 2. Cách2: Khi chúng ta dùng Would you minD. Do you mind mà không đề cập đế chủ từ, mà sử dụng một động từ trực tiếp sau Would you mind / Do you mind thì chúng ta dùng như sau. 1. Would you mind sending those mails for me? 2. Do you mind staying with the kids? 3. Would you mind not smoking here? Hoặc 1. Would you mind John’s staying with me? 2. Do you mind my sister’s coming with us to the picnic? Lưu ý: 3. Cách trả lời Hỏi Trả lời 1. Would you mind if I opened the window? 2. Would you mind if I smoked here? 3. Do you mind if I smoke here? - No, not at all. (Ồ không, không sao cả.) - Of course not. (Dĩ nhiên là không rồi.) - No, go on please. (Ồ không, cứ làm đi.) - Yes, I would. (Có đấy.) - Yes, I do. (Vâng, tôi phiền đấy.)  Would you mind if + subject + simple past.  Do you mind if + subject + simple present.  Would you mind + Ving.  Do you mind + Ving.  Would you mind + somebody’s + Ving.  Do you mind + somebody’s + Ving.  Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 106 THỰC HÀNH 1. Hoàn thành câu với thì quá khứ đơn hoặc hiện tại đơn 1. Would you mind if she _____________ (ride) you to work? 2. Do you mind if my husband _____________ (drive) the car because you need time to keep calm, John? 3. Would you mind if I _____________ (invite) him to our party? 4. Do you mind if they _____________ (stay) over tonight? 5. Would you mind if the children ____________ (not come) along with us this evening? 6. Would you mind if we _______________(not be) able to come to the meeting on time because we are in the traffic jam? 7. Do you mind if I ____________ (be not) able to go out with you tonight because I will be a little busy then? Sorry for not coming. 2. Hoàn thành câu với dạng đúng của những từ trong khung 1. Do you mind _____________ here because I have a headache? 2. Would you mind if I _____________ your phone charger? 3. Would you mind _____________ the room for me, John? Don’t just sit on the sofa and watch TV all the time. 4. Do you mind if she _____________ the back door? She is freezing. 5. Would you mind if I _____________ down? 3. Viết lại các câu sau đây với cấu trúc cho sẵn 1. Can I open the window?  Would you mind ______________________________________________________ 2. Can I borrow your car?  Do you mind if ________________________________________________________ 3. I would like to use your phone charger. Could you lend me yours?  Would you mind ______________________________________________________ 4. “Don’t stand here please.”  Would you mind ______________________________________________________ 5. I am away for a few days, no one takes care of my cats.  Would you mind ______________________________________________________ use clean sit not smoke close Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 107 45. WOULD RATHER, WOULD PREFER, PREFER 1. Cả Would rather và Would prefer đều diễn đạt ý muốn thực hiện một hành động nào đó trong nhiều lựa chọn khác nhau. 2. Cách sử dụng 1. Không đề cập đến chủ từ 1. I would rather eat Phở because it is very delicious. 2. I would prefer to eat pizza, I don’t like Phở very much.r 3. She’d rather not go to work on Monday. 4. They’d prefer not to work hard on the weekend. Lưu ý: 2. Đề cập đến chủ từ khác 1. I’d rather you took a taxi (instead of walking) – it’s not safe on the streets at night. 2. I’d rather the children didn’t watch the film because it’s quite violent. 3. Muốn làm việc A hơn việc B 1. It’s such a nice weather. I’d rather sit in the garden than watch TV. 2. It’s such a nice weather. I’d prefer to sit in the garden rather than watch TV. 3. It’s such a nice weather. I’d prefer to sit in the garden instead of watching TV. 4. Nói về thích làm gì đó chung chung với PREFER 1. I prefer English to Math. 2. I prefer learning English to learning Math. 3. I prefer to learn English rather than learn Math. Prefer (Thích) A to B doing A to doing B. A hơn B Làm việc A hơn việc B. to do A rather than (do) B. Làm việc A hơn việc B. Câu khẳng định: Subject + would rather + V-nguyên mẫu Subject + would prefer + to + V-nguyên mẫu Câu phủ định Subject + would rather + not + V-nguyên mẫu Subject + would prefer +not + to + V-nguyên mẫu Câu hỏi Would you rather + V-nguyên mẫu? Would you prefer + to + V-nguyên mẫu? Viết tắt I would rather = I’d rather I would prefer = I’d prefer Would rather (that) subject + simple past would rather + S + present subjunctive. Would prefer it if + simple past would rather + S + past perfect. 1. would rather do A than do B. 2. would prefer to do A rather than do B. would prefer to do A instead of doing B. Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 108 THỰC HÀNH 1. Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs 1. I would prefer ________________ (play) tennis. 2. I’d rather ________________ (travel) by train because it is very interesting. 3. Would you like some gin? – I’d rather ________________ (have) wine, thanks. 4. I would rather you ________________ (not smoke) here, it’s too crowded. 5. I’d prefer ___________ (not, get up) early on Sunday. I’d rather enjoy the time in bed. 6. She’d rather ________________ (cook) meals for her children. 7. John and Peter would prefer ____________ (buy) this cake because they like the taste. 8. Would you rather ________________ (drink) tea or coffee? – Coffee, please. 9. He’d prefer ________________ (stay) home rather than go to the cinema. 10. I’d rather you ________________ (tell) this to others. It’s our secret. 2. Complete the sentences with to / than / rather than/ instead. 1. I’d rather travel by car ________________ by train. Travelling by train is so boring. 2. She’d prefer to learn English ________________ learn Chinese because Chinese is very difficult to write. 3. We prefer to go swimming ________________ ride bicycle because it’s so hot. 4. She prefers travelling to Singapore ________________ visiting some local places. 5. He’d prefer to go for a walk in the park ___________ of staying home at the weekend. 6. We prefer vegetables ________________ meat. 7. I’d rather eat at home with my family ________________ eat out. 3. Rewrite these sentences without changing their meaning 1. I would like to buy some new clothes for our summer.  I would rather ______________________________________________________ 2. I would like you not to stay up so late, it’s harmful to your health.  I’d rather that ______________________________________________________ 3. I prefer living in the countryside to living in the noisy city.  I’d prefer __________________________________________________________ 4. I like learning languages such as Italian, English and French.  I prefer ___________________________________________________________ 5. Please don’t talk too much in class, children!  The teacher would rather the children ___________________________________ Biên soạn bởi Lê Công Đức YOUTUBE DUCLE ELT Đăng ký kênh để học online nhé! Ngữ Pháp Tiếng Anh 109 46. ENOUGH 1. Enough được dùng để diễn đã ý bạn có đủ yếu tố nào đó hoặc đặ điểm nào đó để thực hiện một hành động nào đó hay không. Tương đương trong Tiếng Việt thì enough có nghĩa là “đủ”. 2. Cách sử dụng enough 1. Sử dụng với tính từ hoặc trạng từ Hãy xem ví dụ: (1) Am I tall enough to be a police officer? (2) He isn’t running fast enough to win the race. Hãy trả lời các câu hỏi sau đây: (1) Trong câu một mô tả đặc điểm của người hay hành động? ____________________ (2) Trong câu hai mô tả đặc điểm của người hay hành động? ____________________ (3) Enough đứng đâu so với trạng từ và tính từ? (4) sau enough người ta dùng động từ ở hình thức nào? ____________________ 2. Sử dụng với danh từ Hãy xem ví dụ sau đây (1) There aren’t enough color pencils for us to use. (2) They didn’t have enough money for their children’s education. Hãy trả lời các câu sau đây (1) Enough đứng ở vị trí nào so với danh từ? __________________________ (2) Cho ai đó người ta dùng cụm từ nào? __________________________ (3) Sau enough người ta dùng động từ như thế nào? _____________

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