Analyzing structure and function of landscape for the orientation of rational use of the territory of ma river basin (the part belong to thanh hoa province)

The dissertation has built a landscape zoning map of Ma river basin in Thanh

Hoa province, according to the two-level zoning system of landscape regions and

landscape sub-regions. The result is 3 landscape regions and 24 landscape subregions. The landscape zoning map along river basin is established according to the

traditional landscape zoning principle taking into account the watershed

characteristics. The results of the landscape zoning map show the landscape

differentiation in a horizontal structure. Subregional units are the basis for zoning

territory for the development of agricultural and forestry. The landscape zoning map

is the scientific basis for organizing specialization and development of agriculture

and forestry in Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province

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west-southeast, the depressions have decided the structure of the terrain and direction of material transportation, the basis of differentiation of the research territory. c. Topography and geomorphology The terrain is quite complex, much divided and lower towards the east-west direction. From the west to the east there are mountainous, midland, plain and coastal terrain. In the total area of 1.061.000 ha, mountainous and hilly terrain accounts for 73.3%; plain occupies 16% and 10.7% is coastal area. The geomorphological 9 characteristics of Ma river basin are quite diversified with 4 types of topography and 30 surfaces. In mountainous areas there is a natural disruption by the height that caused the formation of classes and subclasses of landscape, and geomorphology caused the formation of landscape categories in the Ma river basin landscape classification system in Thanh Hoa province. d. Climate characteristics The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has a tropical monsoon climate with a hot summers, heavy rains and hot dry west-winds; a cold winter with low rainfall, frost and the northeast monsoon tends to decline from sea to land, from north to south. The total annual average radiation is approximately 152 Kcal/ cm 2 . The average annual sunshine hours range from 1,479 to 1,700 hours. The average annual air temperature is 22-23 o C. The relative humidity of the air varies between 85-86%. The average rainfall is 1,700-2,000mm/year. Based on the analysis the climatic factors of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province and the results of the division of climatic classification criteria, over 1,061,000 ha of natural land in the whole territory, there are 16 types of climate with 77 plots. The differentiation of the climate of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is the cause of diverse division of the landscape. e. Hydrographical characteristics Water resource of the Ma River basin of Thanh Hoa province is abundant. The total annual rainfall is 19 billion m 3 . The average module of the rivers flows is 20,4 - 38 l/s/km 2 . The flow regime is distinctly divided into the flood season and the dry season, which closely follows the rhythm of the climate. In addition, Ma river system (including Ma river and Chu river) also has a dense river system such as Buoi river, Dat river, Cau Chay river, Lung river, etc. Flows have redistributed material and energy among different terrain layers and areas, transported and accreted sediments forming the basins, the surface of the river terraces in the Ma river basin and contributed to the differentiation of landscape classes. The formation and development of the landscape, especially the richness of vegetation, is directly related to the water potential. f. Soils characteristics The conditions and processes of land formation of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province are varied and complex which formed a land cover with 10 main soil groups and 31 different soil types, covering an area of 991898.19 hectares. The terrain of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is diverse with many forms of terrain, in which sloping topography is dominant. Therefore, in the process of forming and developing landscape of the territory, the diversification of soil combined with vegetation cover has created the diversity of landscape types. g. Biological characteristics The natural vegetation commonly distributed in the basin is divided into belts: Tropical mountainous belt > 700 m on limestone; Tropical mountainous belt > 700 m on other rocks; Tropical belt > 700 m on limestone; Tropical belt > 700 m on other 10 rocks. The vegetation covers are mainly planted forest, wet rice, fruits, annual industrial crops and plants in residential areas. The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has a rich and diverse range of forest fauna, including terrestrial and aquatic animals, native and migratory animals, natural animals and pets, etc. It is the combination of these natural and cultivated communities with soils that are indicator of landscapes types in the Ma river basin landscape classification system in Thanh Hoa province. h. Other natural resources of the territory Mineral resources are abundant and diversified, including: iron and iron alloys with iron ore, iron-manganese and mineral sand, ferrous and precious metals, 7 mines and lead-zinc ore points were discovered; chemical and fertilizers materials has serpentine, raw materials for producing porcelain, glass and construction materials with kaolin, fuel with peat, etc. 2.1.2. Characteristics of socio - economic factors in the landscape formation of the studied territory a. Population and labor force By 2016, the total population in the Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province is about 3,712,600 people. The average natural population growth rate is 1.95%, in which about 30% of the population live in urban areas and the rest live in rural and mountainous areas. Crowded population has created an abundant source of labor for the Ma river basin. By 2016, the labor force of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province is about 2,251.03 thousand, accounting for 60.6% of the population. b. Structure and development status of economic sectors Economic growth: Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) in 2016 at the 2010 prices is estimated to increase 9.05% over the same period, of which agriculture, forestry and fishery increased 2.52%; industry and construction increased 11.96%; service sector increased 8.83%; import tax, product tax minus subsidy increased 9,16%. c. Socio-economic factors in relation to landscape formation of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province Human is increasingly impacting nature in a comprehensive and profound way, the exploitation of natural resources for socio-economic development directly or indirectly transformed the environment and natural components, also formed a number of human landscapes. 2.2. Indicator classification system of landscape in Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province 2.2.1. Principles for the construction of landscape classification system Building a landscape classification system must be based on the following principles: historical perspective principles; general principles; relative uniform principle. 11 2.2.2. Characteristics of Landscape classification units Table 2.20. Landscape classification system of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province No Classification level Typical sign Landscape classification results 1 Landscape system The main radiation source determines the zone. Moisture-heat regime determines the intensity of the material and energy cycles. - The landscape system of tropical humid monsoon 2 Landscape subsystem The correlation between terrain and northeast and southwest monsoon decides the redistribution of heat and humidity. - The landscape subsystem has rainy season in summer and autumn, cold winter 3 Landscape type A general characteristic of climate determines the type of vegetation cover and the adaptability of floral communities due to fluctuations in heat-moisture balance. - The studied area has 13 landscape types 4 Landscape class The morphological characteristics of the terrain define the uniformity of two major processes in the material cycle: abrasion and accretion. - Landscape class of mountain - Landscape class of hill - Landscape class of plain 5 Landscape subclass Characteristics of morphological survey of terrain have divided the interior layers of the landscape class. Demonstrating material balance between topographic features, climatic features and plant communities features. - Landscape subclass of medium mountain - Landscape subclass of low mountain - Landscape subclass of valleys and sunken areas - Landscape subclass of high hill - Landscape subclass of low hill - Landscape subclass of high plain - Landscape subclass of low plain 6 Landscape kind Classified by geomorphological criteria of soil and geomorphological criteria of surface sediments. In terms of geomorphology, these are terrain types that are divided according to morphological - original principles; the surface is composed by a type or a combination of soil types and sediment materials. The studied area has 34 landscape kinds 7 Landscape species The combination of plant communities (groups) with soil types (groups) through human impacts. The studied area has 348 landscape species (in which, there are two general types of water surface and resident) Thus, the landscape classification system of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province consists of 7 levels: system  subsystem  type  class  subclass  12 kind  species. This is the basis for the establishment of the territorial landscape map with the ratio of 1: 100.000. 2.2.3. Map of Ma river basin landscape in Thanh Hoa province To establish a map of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province at the ratio of 1: 100,000, the PhD students have used a combination of methods. On the basis of the available thematic maps at the same scale as geological map, geomorphological map, topographic map, climate map, soil map, vegetation map with the ratio of 1:100,000. Studying the attached diagrams, tables, etc, on Mapinfor and ArcMap software. + Landscape transection of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province To clarify the differentiation of the natural and structural characteristics of the researched territorial landscape, based on landscape maps and component maps, the author has established 3 landscape transections: A-B; C-D; E-F. 2.2.4. Landscape classification units - High - class landscape classification units: landscape system; landscape subsystem; landscape class - Low - class landscape classification units: landscape subclass; landscape type; landscape kind; landscape species. 2.2.5. Characteristics of landscape structure of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province a. Landscape class - Landscape class of mountain includes medium mountain landscape subclass, low mountain landscape subclass and valleys and sunken areas landscape subclass, with 199 landscpae types and 900 local areas. The total area is 519.82,4 ha, accounting for 46,8% of the natural area of the territory. - Landscape class of hill is the transition from plain to mountainous areas, with the height from tens of meters to 200 m, has 221.170,6 ha, accounting for 19,9% of the natural area of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. - Landscape class of plain has 205.467,9 hectares, accounting for 18,5% of the natural area of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province. The plain landscape class has 67 landscape types, beginning with landscapes class number 280 to number 346. b. Landscape subclass 1 Landscape subclass of medium mountain 236.449,0 ha 21,3% 2 Landscape subclass of low mountain 201.772,4 ha 18,1% 3 Landscape subclass of valleys and sunken areas 81.606,0 ha 7,3% 4 Landscape subclass of high hill 164.164,8 ha 14,7% 5 Landscape subclass of low hill 14.437,9 ha 1,3% 6 Landscape subclass of high plain 57.005,8 ha 5,2% 7 Landscape subclass of low plain 191.029,9 ha 17,2% c. Type, kind and species of landscape of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province The landscape type is characterized by a type of a certain dominance vegetation over a typical soil, developed on the same homogeneous terrain. The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has 13 landscape types. 13 Based on the division of geomorphology-soil, geomorphology-sediment surface, the Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has 34 landscape kinds. The combination of soil and vegetation forms a landscape species. The Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has 348 landscape psecies. 2.2.6. Characteristics of mobile structure of the landscape of Ma river basin, Thanh Hoa province The seasonal rhythm of the Ma river basin landscape is closely related to the rhythm of the climate. The change in temperature and humidity is related to the apparent movement of the sun and the monsoon activity mechanism in Southeast Asia printed the rhythm of the landscape in the studied territory. 2.2.7. Analyzing landscape function of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province a. The basis for classifying landscape function of the studied territory - Each landscape unit can undertake one or several functions; landscape units can undertake the same function; landscape function is dominated by landscape structures; landscapes differ in function and direction of use; landscapes are of different nature in function, but for the purpose of human impacts, they have the same direction of use. b. Analyzing landscape function of the studied territory The landscape of consists of the following functional groups: Productive function group; Social function group; Ecological function group. The landscape of the Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province has a variety of functions. 2.3. Landscape division for agriculture and forestry development in Ma river basin Based on the principles of landscape zoning (section 1.2.9 page 27) combined with the analysis of structural and functional landscape characteristics as well as the conditions that form landscape units. The study territory is divided into 3 landscape regions and 24 landscape sub-regions. CHAPTER 3 ORIENTATION OF RATIONAL USE OF THE TERRITORY OF MA RIVER BASIN, THANH HOA PROVINCE 3.1. Landscape assessment to serves the orientation of rational use of territory for agriculture and forestry development in Ma river basin Thanh Hóa province 3.1.1. Steps to assess the landscape Ma river basin Thanh Hóa province Based on the researches of geographers from Russia - Eastern Europe and Vietnam such as general assessment model for the territories of L.I. Mukhina (1970), A.M. Marinhich (1970), P.G. Sisenko, Pham Hoang Hai (1997), Nguyen Cao Huan (2005), the author generalized the content of the general assessment process. The assessment results show that the higher the point of the landscape, the more favorable the landscape for a production sector. 3.1.2. Principles and methods of landscape assessment The principle of landscape assessment is through the characteristics of the subject, corresponding to them is the component characteristics of the object to 14 determine the appropriateness of landscapes for each manufacturing industry and economic sector. 3.1.3. Selection of evaluation units - For agriculture are landscapes with the biological function previously analyzed. For the purpose of protection forest development, the landscape selected was landscapes with the dominant function of ecological function group, with the common slope of above 25º; for the purpose of developing production forests, the landscapes are functional in two groups of ecological and living mass functions, with the dominant slope from 8-15º; for the purpose of conserving, selected landscapes belong to ecological and social function groups. 3.2. Developing a system of landscape assessment indicators for the purpose of developing economic production sectors in the research territory 3.2.1. Principles for selection and classification of evaluation criteria The selected indicators must have a clear differentiation according to territorial units in the research ratio; the selected criteria must clearly affect the development object; the number of selected and graded indicators may be much or less different. 3.2.2. Adaptation evaluation for groups of food crops, annual industrial crops, and fruit trees - Food crops group: the research territory has a big population, so the issue of ensuring food for the resident is a top task; annual industrial crops group: this group of trees plays an important role in the lives of mountainous people, especially sugarcane; fruit trees group: the territory of Ma river basin of Thanh Hoa province has great potential for planting fruit trees. Table 3.1. Classification of adaptation level for 3 groups of agricultural crops Crops Element Adaptation level Highly suitable S1 (3 mark) Suitable S2 (2 mark) Lowly Suitable S3 (1 mark) Food crops group Soil type Pb, Pk, Pg, Pf, Pj, Py, D B, Bq, S, Smi, Fs, Fl, Fv, Fq, Fp Fa, Rv, Rr, Mm, M, Mi, C Slope < 3o 3o - 8o 8o - 15o Thickness > 100 50 - 100 <50 Composition of soil mechanics moderate rich soil Rich soil slightly rich soil; Miscellaneous sand Temperature >= 23oC 20oC - 23oC 18 - 20o Rainfall > 2.000 1.500 - 2.000 < 1.500 Number of cold month 2 3 >=4 Water source Take initiative Near water source Limited irrigation Annual industrial crops group Soil type Fl, Fv, Fp, Pk, Pf, D B, Bq, Fk, Fs, Fq Fa, Rr, Pb, Pg, Pj, Py. Slope < 3o 3o - 8o 8o - 15o Thickness > 100 50 - 100 < 50 Composition of soil mechanics moderate rich soil Rich soil slightly rich soil; Miscellaneous sand Temperature >= 23oC 20oC - 23oC 18 - 20o Rainfall > 2.000 1.500 - 2.000 < 1.500 15 Number of cold month 2 3 >= 4 Water source Take initiative Near water source Limited irrigation Fruit trees grou Soil type Fs, Fl, Fv, Fq, Fp, D B, Bq, Fq, Fa, Rv, Rr Fa, Pk, Pf, Pb, Pg, Pj, Py, Slope < 3o 3 - 8o 8o - 20o Thickness > 100 50 - 100 < 50 Composition of soil mechanics moderate rich soil Rich soil slightly rich soil; Miscellaneous sand Temperature >= 23oC 20oC - 23oC 18 - 20o Rainfall > 2.000 1.500 - 2.000 < 1.500 Number of cold month 2 3 >= 4 Water source Take initiative Near water source Limited irrigation - Determining mark of indicators: The results show that for crop groups: the type of soil with the highest mark. Calculation of CR for 3 crops group is < 0.1 so these marks are accepted. Table 3.6. Determination of the adaptation level of 3 crop groups Crop group Dmax Dmin D Adaptation level Highly suitable Suitable Lowly suitable Food crops 0,375 0,172 0,067 0,308 - 0,375 0,240 - 0,307 0,172 - 0,239 Annual industrial crops 0,375 0,202 0,057 0,318 - 0,375 0,260 - 0,317 0,202 - 0,259 Fruit trees 0,376 0,176 0,066 0,310 – 0,376 0,243 - 0,309 0,176 - 0,242 Classifying the adaptability of landscape types for each crop group Table 3.8. Classification results of the adaptability of the landscape to the food crops group No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) Rate (%) 1 Highly suitable (63 landscape types) 54, 57, 58, 80, 95, 100, 103, 120, 123, 124, 125, 126, 162, 173, 174, 175, 177, 180, 181, 183, 184, 189, 190, 192, 193, 196, 197, 213, 224, 231, 233, 235, 236, 237, 238, 250, 259, 282, 286, 287, 289, 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 302, 303, 304, 306, 308, 309, 312, 322, 335, 336, 337, 339, 340, 341, 343, 344, 345. 205.838,9 19,4 2 Suitable (40 landscape types) 15, 16, 47, 53, 56, 65, 67, 96, 107, 134, 137, 150, 163, 168, 179, 206, 220, 221, 222, 249, 271, 285, 288, 290, 291, 299, 301, 307, 310, 311, 315, 316, 317, 318, 325, 327, 328, 329, 331, 333. 67.830,5 6,4 3 Lowly suitable ( 18 landscape types) 10, 50, 66, 69, 74, 84, 90, 132, 144, 148, 156, 161, 186, 205, 242, 245, 332, 338. 27.039,8 2,5 4 Not suitable (228 landscape types) 760.290,7 71,7 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 Table 3.10. Classification results of the adaptability of the landscape to the annual industrial crops group No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) Rate (%) 16 1 Highly suitable (22 landscape types) 80, 100, 103, 120, 124, 162, 173, 174, 175, 189, 200, 224, 250, 255, 259, 260, 263, 276, 314, 320, 321. 41.617,2 3,9 2 Suitable (31 landscape types) 15, 16, 47, 54, 56, 58, 65, 67, 95, 96, 107, 123, 125, 126, 134, 137, 150, 168, 177, 197, 236, 237, 252, 254, 256, 258, 261, 262, 265, 277, 281. 40.994,04 3,8 3 Lowly suitable ( 7 landscape types) 66, 84, 90, 148, 179, 245, 275. 9.998,2 0,9 4 Not suitable (288 landscape types) 968.390,6 91,3 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 Table 3.12. Classification results of the adaptability of the landscape to the fruit tree group No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) Rate %) 1 Highly suitable (13 landscape types) 54, 67, 96, 173, 162, 173, 174, 189, 197, 224, 237, 250, 259. 25.149,6 2,4 2 Suitable (14 landscape types) 15, 56, 112, 134, 149, 169, 188, 202, 209, 210, 212, 236, 247, 268. 45.936,9 4,3 3 Lowly suitable ( 11 landscape types) 94, 106, 114, 118, 160, 172, 191, 214, 217, 241, 274. 50.938,5 4,8 4 Not suitable (310 landscape types) 938.974,9 88,5 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 3.2.3. Evaluation of adaptability for protection and production forests For special use forests, the function is conservation. In the research area, there are 53 types of landscapes with 131,744.22 hectares, accounting for about 12.4% of the territory, consists of two national parks and four nature reserves. Special-use forest is a type of forest that uses landscape in a typical way and is strictly preserved; therefore, the dissertation only evaluates the type of landscape use for forestry through protection forests and production forests. * Selecting and classifying evaluation criteria for protection and production forests Table 3.13. Classification of adaptive criteria for forest types in the territory of Ma river basin in Thanh Hoa province Type of forest Element Adaptation levels Highly suitable S1 (3 mark) Suitable S2 (2 mark) Lowly suitable S3 (1 mark) Protection Forest Location of protection Watershed and coastal location Slope area, near the basin Valley Terrain Medium mountain & low mountain, littoral Hill, valley Hill Slope > 25o , < 3o 15 - 25o 8o -15o Soil type Hk, Ha, Hs, Hq, Fk, Fs, Fv, Fa, Fq B, Bq, Mm, M, Smi, Fl, Fp, Rr, Cc Pk, Pg, Pf, Pj, Py, D, E, núi đá 17 Thickness > 100 m 50 - 100 m < 50 m Rainfall > 2.000 mm 1.500 - 2.000 mm < 1.500 mm Vegetation Evergreen hermetic forest Artificial forest, mangroves forest Grass-plot, shrubs Production forest Slope 8o - 15o 15 - 25o > 25o Terrain Hill, valley Medium mountain & low mountain Hill and littoral Soil type Hk, Ha, Hs, Hq, Fk, Fs, Fv, Fa, Fq B, Bq, Mm, M, Smi, Fl, Fp, Rr, Pk, Pg, Pf, Pj, Py, D, E, Cc, núi đá Thickness > 100 m 50 – 100 m < 50 m Rainfall > 2.000 mm 1.500 - 2.000 mm < 1.500 mm Vegetation Evergreen hermetic forest Artificial forest, mangroves forest Grass-plot, shrubs * Determining mark of elements: The protection forest has the highest mark ( k = 0,224); with production forest, the terrain has the highest mark (k = 0,259). Calculation of CR for 2 types of forest is < 0.1 so these marks are accepted. Table 3.18. Range of mark and adaptive levels of two types of forest No Type of forest Dmax Dmin D Adaptation levels Highly suitable Suitable Lowly suitable 1 Protection forest 0,431 0,174 0,085 0,346 - 0,431 0,260 - 0,345 0,174 - 0,259 2 Production forest 0,447 0,166 0,093 0,354 - 0,447 0,260 - 0,353 0,166 - 0,259 Classifying the adaptability of landscape types for each type of forest. Table 3.20. Classification results of the adaptation level of the landscape to the protection forest No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) Rate (%) 1 Highly suitable (30 landscape types) 2, 9, 12, 14, 27, 39, 41, 42, 55, 56, 75, 77, 79, 82, 85, 88, 91, 93, 99, 104, 108, 109, 119, 137, 209, 214, 217, 266, 269, 274. 66.311,1 6,3 2 Suitable (74 loại landscape types) 5, 6, 8, 11, 15, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 32, 33, 36, 43, 54, 76, 78, 81, 83, 86, 87, 89, 92, 96, 101, 102, 106, 117, 134, 139, 149, 160, 165, 170, 173, 174, 176, 182, 185, 195, 197, 199, 219, 220, 223, 224, 228, 232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 241, 248, 250, 253, 259, 264, 267, 270, 272, 273, 278, 279, 292, 323, 324, 326, 330, 346. 199.860,1 18,9 3 Lowly suitable ( 18 landscape types) 166, 167, 171, 178, 187, 194, 198, 230, 251, 257, 280, 284, 294, 305, 313, 319, 334, 342. 38.104,7 3,5 4 Not suitable (226 landscape types) 756.724,1 71,3 Total 348 1.061.000 100,0 Table 3.22. Classification results of the adaptation level of the landscape to the production forest No Adaptation level Landscape type Area (ha) Rate (%) 1 Highly suitable (27 landscape 59, 60, 64, 67, 72, 77, 114, 127, 130, 133, 135, 136, 137, 140, 149, 160, 189, 200, 208, 209, 214, 99.151,4 9,4 18 types) 216, 217, 241, 242, 243, 274. 2 Suitable (39 l

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