Cooperation of security and national defense between asean and the us from 1991 - 2015

First, the two sides have strengthened their cooperation on the issue of

combating terrorism.

Second, the US seeks to increase its military presence and build bases

in the Philippines.

Third, the two sides regularly organize joint military visits and

exercises.

Fourth, the two sides increase aid and purchase and sale of weapons.

Fifth, the Philippine-US military cooperation mainly focuses on

improving the capacity

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eapons, sovereignty disputes in the East Sea, East China Sea, etc. The "lack of trust" and the mistrustful sentiment have pushed many countries into the arms race. Asia Pacific faces many non-traditional security issues such as terrorism, transnational crime, climate change, energy security, epidemics, etc. 2.1.2. Security challenges in Southeast Asia During the past time, ASEAN has achieved many achievements in terms of political cooperation, security - defense, but since the late 1990s of the twentieth century and entered the early years of the 21st century, ASEAN has faced with many security and defense challenges are: 2.1.2.1. The issue of sovereignty over territorial waters and territories The largest territorial and territorial dispute in Southeast Asia is currently the sovereignty dispute in the East Sea between China and some ASEAN member countries. In addition, ASEAN member countries also exist territorial disputes such as Thailand and Cambodia over the Preah Vihear temple area; Thailand and Myanmar are related to sovereignty over the Moei and Salween rivers; Philippines and Malaysia in Sabah state, etc. These disputes have been going on for a long time, despite the participation of the International Court of Justice, the efforts of ASEAN and related parties, the conflicts have not been resolved, but they are more complicated. Therefore the risk of conflict between the parties is increasing rapidly. 2.1.2.2. The issue of arms race In response to new security challenges, most Southeast Asian countries have increased their defense spending. Big countries increase its competition and involvement in the region. The US implements a "pivot" policy, China increases its defense budget, develops naval forces, air forces and strategic missiles. This makes Southeast Asia a "low-lying area" in the area of regional security, that the "barrel of gunpowder" can explode at any time if not well controlled. 2.1.2.3. Ethnic conflict - religion, violence and terrorism Ethnic conflict - religion: After the end of the Cold War, Southeast Asia has reappeared in hot spots of religious and ethnic conflicts, typically the 9 separatist movement in Indonesia, the Islamic movement in the southern Philippines and the three southern provinces of Thailand. Lan, etc. The issue of violence and terrorism: Southeast Asia with nearly 300 million Muslims, terrorist activities in Southeast Asia often take advantage of issues of ethnicity and religion to incite violence and extremist ideology; Armed groups and terrorist organizations in Southeast Asia often use violence and terror to carry out political purposes; Terrorism in Southeast Asia has recently been internationalized under the leadership of IS; Terrorist groups in Southeast Asia tend to shake hands together. 2.1.2.4. The problem of geopolitical competition between the US and China Over the past decades, Southeast Asia has always been a competitive area among major countries, in which the US-China competition is the fiercest in all three aspects, namely economic, political and security- military. Regarding to the positives, it also poses many security challenges for ASEAN. First, the risk from major countries' ambitions to control the geopolitical space leading to problems for regional security. Second, the increased involvement of the US and China in the region has caused the security situation in Southeast Asia more and more complicated, pushing up the arms race in Southeast Asia. Third, the US and China have intensified the enticing, gathering forces that have pushed Southeast Asian countries to face difficult choices. Fourth, ASEAN will face with the risk of destruction if major countries do not stop the tactics of bribery, manipulation and division, causing internal disunity. 2.1.2.5. The problem of environmental pollution The environmental pollution in Southeast Asia recently took place in all 5 problem groups, namely, air pollution, water resources, soil environment, the South China Sea, and natural resource trade. There are some below reason caused these situantions. First, Southeast Asia is a region with a high rate of population growth and urbanization, leading to an increase in the demand for raw materials, emissions, wastewater, and waste while its ability to treat waste is limited. Second, in order to achive economic development purposes, most Southeast Asian countries rely on excessive exploitation of natural resources. Third, the issue of climate change causes enormous environmental implications for Southeast Asia. Environmental pollution and climate change are the reasons that push a number of Southeast Asian countries to face conflicts such as: Risk of conflict related to the management and use of water resources in the Mekong River: China's use of "water diplomacy" and 10 investment activities in Laos and Cambodia to put political pressure on countries is a serious challenge. Marine environmental pollution and resource disputes in the South China Sea: There are some potential danger pushing the area into disputes that could lead to armed conflict, namely: Overexploitation of marine resources, waste discharges and increasing territorial and territorial disputes in the South China Sea, accretion by China artificial islands, the militarization of the South China Sea, etc. Thus, the emergence of regional security issues has been impacting on ASEAN and its member countries, pushing ASEAN into a "low-lying area" of security. 2.2. Overview of ASEAN-US cooperation before 1991 2.2.1. The period from 1967 to 1976 The US side wants to force ASEAN into its orbit, turning ASEAN into a dependent and dominated US organization in the war in Indochina and establishing an "anti-communist" belt in Southeast Asia. Asean are small, economically weak countries so that if it want to rely on the security box and receive help from the US, they should support US policy in Southeast Asia. In summary, in the first 10 years of ASEAN establishment, the ASEAN-US relationship has been closely linked on the basis of mutual interests. 2.2.2. The period from 1977 to 1991 After the two sides established dialogue relations in 1977, ASEAN- US relations continued to develop in economic, political - military and diplomatic aspects. The US strengthens its economic and military aid activities to entice ASEAN. However, at the final stage, realizing the difference in dealing with Cambodia, ASEAN maintained a relatively independent attitude towards the US. 2.3. Demand for security-defense cooperation between ASEAN and the US since 1991 2.3.1. ASEAN's needs and interests when cooperating with the US With the end of the Cold War, ASEAN faces a new "mountain" of security challenges, requiring ASEAN to strengthen and expand cooperation with foreign countries, especially with the US because: public security services "of the world. Security - defense: The US military forces play a key role in maintaining the "lasting peace" in Asia. ASEAN's increased security cooperation with the United States will balance relations with China, and neutralize traditional and non-traditional security challenges in Southeast Asia. Politics - diplomacy: ASEAN has enlisted the support of the US in the process of expanding its organization, building communities and enhancing its position in the international arena. 2.3.2. American interests and policies toward ASEAN since the Cold War 11 2.3.2.1. US interests in relations with ASEAN The US has a national interest tied to ASEAN and Southeast Asia In term of economy: Southeast Asia as well as ASEAN are major markets for US goods and investment; is an area that brings huge resources to the US industry and high technology. In terms of politics - security: ASEAN especially Southeast Asian countries is located in an important geostrategic position in the region and in the world, where the South China Sea - an important maritime route and allied countries, close American partner. 2.3.2.2. US policy in ASEAN The Bill Clinton Administration's position with ASEAN (1993 - 2001) Although not as important as the East Asia region, but ASEAN and Southeast Asia also have priority in the policy of the Clinton administration in two aspects: First, supporting ASEAN to establish a security mechanism. multilateral (ARF), membership expansion; support ASEAN's stance on the South China Sea issue. Secondly, to attach importance to the relationship with ASEAN member countries, especially allies and partners, on the basis of an "axis and spindle" security model. The G.W.Bush administration's perspective period (2001- 2008) The US political-security policy with ASEAN was affected by three factors in this period: (1) America was attacked by terrorism on September 11, 2001; (2) America has a new perception of the rise of China; (3) ASEAN has a growing role in regional security institutions. Therefore, the US has identified Southeast Asia as "the second front against terrorism" and has tightened relations with ASEAN through the Joint Declaration on International Counterterrorism Cooperation (August 2002), the Joint Declaration on the Vision. on promoting US-ASEAN relations (2005). ASEAN in the Obama Administration's "Return to Asia" strategy (2009 - 2015) The administration of US President Barack Obama in the policy of "pivoting" to the Asia – Pacific defines Asia – Pacific play an vitual role in Asia – Pacific and tightens and strengthens relations with ASEAN and considers ASEAN as " essential partner, "and plays a central role in" new regional architecture ". The US side commented: "Among the increasingly interwoven organizations in the region, perhaps the most important one is ASEAN", and "America is returning to focus with ASEAN". Summary of chapter 2 Firstly, after the Cold War, the political and security situation in the Asia Pacific and Southeast Asia has changed rapidly, besides the advantages, ASEAN also faces many challenges. which are difficult to deal with. Second, ASEAN and the US have a good relationship in many fields. Thirdly, entering the first decade of the twenty-first century, facing new opportunities and challenges, ASEAN and the US both have their 12 own development goals, so they have strengthened their security cooperation. Chapter 3 SITUATION OF SECURITY - NATIONAL DEFENSE COOPERATION BETWEEN ASEAN AND USA FROM 1991 TO 2015 3.1. Security-defense cooperation mechanism between ASEAN and the US 3.1.1. Institutional building process 3.1.1.1. The period 1991 – 2000 ASEAN: highly appreciate the role of the US and develop relations with this partner on all aspects, especially in terms of politics and security. On the US side: After the socialist countries in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union disintegrated, the US was no longer obsessed with and feared by communism, President G.H.W. Bush did not view ASEAN as a valuable geopolitical capital, and therefore its position was severely impaired. The process of building political and security institutions between ASEAN and the US in this period must be pay more attions in these fileds: In terms of Trong lĩnh vực an ninh – quốc phòng: The US maintains a certain military presence in many Southeast Asian countries through agreements and commitments with ASEAN member countries. In ASEAN cooperation, the US supports ASEAN's stance and position in the ASEAN Declaration on the South China Sea (1992) and calls for peaceful settlement of the issue. The US Congress declared "the right to travel freely in the South China Sea and also is the United States’s interest" (March 1995) and the State Department declared "America has a long- term interest in maintaining peace and stability in the South China Sea. Thus, maintaining freedom of navigation becomes a fundamental interest of the US. After all, unobstructed travel of all ships and aircraft in the South China Sea is essential for peace and prosperity of the entire CA - TBD region "(May 1995). In terms of diplomatic politics: In order to maintain its leadership in Southeast Asia, the United States continues to maintain tightly with ASEAN through the dialogue mechanisms of the ASEAN Ministers Meeting (AMM), ASEAN Post Ministers Meeting (PMC), ASEAN Dialogue. |Morever, the US also has actively supported ASEAN to establish the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF). In addition, ASEAN not only carry out the multilateralization and diversification of relations not to avoid dependence on major countries, but also, ASEAN maintains good relations with the US, Japan, China and Russia. However, the ASEAN-US relationship at this period faced many challenges, especially in the issue of democracy and human rights when the US opposed ASEAN and admitted Myanmar as a member of the bloc, etc. In summary, the progression of security-defense relations between ASEAN and the US in the period 1991 - 2000 was maintained through 13 many areas, however, the US withdrawal from the Philippines created a "power vacuum" in Southeast Asia, the United States abandoned many allies for the reason of the financial crisis in 1997 and intervened within ASEAN, causing the US prestige and influence in the region to be seriously impaired. 3.1.1.2. 2001 - 2008 period Entering the early years of the twenty-first century, ASEAN-US relations showed new signs of change. Some people believed that this is the period of its inherent "return to orbit" relationship. And the factor that pushed ASEAN and the US closer together stems from basic factors such as: the United States was terrorized in 2001 and the US needs allies to support in the fight against terrorism in the world; the rise of China and the need to restore the US position in the region, etc. In the field of security - defense: First, the most prominent point in the process of building the defense- security cooperation institutions between ASEAN and the US at this stage was cooperation in the field of counterterrorism in both bilateral and multilateral aspects. Second, in the face of security challenges such as territorial disputes, territorial waters, piracy, illegal arms trade at sea, ASEAN and the US have stepped up cooperation in solving the South China Sea issue. and enforce maritime security and safety with many important initiatives. In politics - diplomacy: The two sides have found common points when signing: The Declaration of Shared Vision on Strengthening the ASEAN-US Partnership (November 17, 2005), through the Action Plan to implement the Declaration announcing the Joint Vision on the ASEAN-US Enhanced Partnership, the two sides agreed to increase awareness of the Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC), and the US Senate has approved a Resolution to promote 30 years of life. US - ASEAN system. In general, the process of building institutions for ASEAN and US political and security cooperation in this period has had more positive changes than the previous period. 3.1.1.3. Period 2009 - 2015. This was the warmest period of ASEAN-US relations since the Cold War. Security-defense cooperation between ASEAN and the US takes place in the context of ASEAN's efforts to realize the goal of building an ASEAN community by 2015, overcoming the consequences of the global financial crisis in 2008, solving challenges in the In the South China Sea, the US has implemented the policy of "Rotating Axis" to Asia Pacific. In general, the two sides have established a new level of relationship, cooperating comprehensively and in depth with many new points: In relations with ASEAN: This is the period when the US highly apporiciate the great role of ASEAN, cooperation with ASEAN will be "the key for the US to ensure American leadership in the world". The 14 highlights of the ASEAN-US relationship in this period are: The US signed the Southeast Asia Amity and Cooperation Treaty (TAC) on July 27, 2009; signed the Action Plan document to strengthen the ASEAN-US Partnership for the period 2011 - 2015 for Peace and Prosperity; America participated in the first ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting (ADMM +) (2010); The US is a member of the East Asia Summit (EAS) (2010); The two sides have upgraded their relationship through the Joint Declaration on an ASEAN-US Strategic Partnership (2015). In addition, the United States actively participates in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the ASEAN-US Dialogue, Joint Cooperation Committee (JCC), ASEAN-US Ministerial Meeting (MPC), and Ministerial Conference. ASEAN- US diplomacy, etc. In bilateral relations with ASEAN member countries: The US attaches great importance to bilateral relations with allies and partners and divided into three levels of relations: (1) Close ally group including Thailand and the Philippines. ; (2) The strategic partnership group is Singapore; (3) Potential strategic partners are Indonesia, Malaysia and Vietnam. In conclusion, this is the warm period of ASEAN and US relations again, and security-defense cooperation is the dominant feature in the relations between ASEAN and the US. 3.1.2. Multilateral security-defense cooperation mechanisms of ASEAN and US participation 3.1.2.1. In the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) The role of ASEAN in the ARF: ASEAN plays the founding role of the ARF, the major countries in the ARF are forced to accept the central role of ASEAN.. America's cross-cutting intention for the ARF: The United States joins the ARF and uses the Forum as a tool to maintain its strategic interest in Asia – Pacific, strengthen its foothold in Southeast Asia, and realize its strategic goals. strategy in the region with an emphasis on encircling and restraining China. America's contribution to the ARF: First, the ARF has become a channel for the US to engage and promote the resolution of regional security issues according to the US intentions. Second, the United States has been successful in asking military officials to participate in ARF ministerial meetings since 1997. Third, through the ARF, the US has drawn and pressured China to participate responsibly in regional security issues, including the South China Sea issue. Fourth, through the ARF, the US has promoted security cooperation with countries in the region through counterterrorism cooperation, military exercises, training exchanges, etc. 3.1.2.2. During the East Asia Summit (EAS) On December 14, 2005 in Malaysia, the East Asia Summit officially was established with 16 member countries including 10 ASEAN member 15 countries, 03 Northeast Asian countries (China, Japan, South Korea), India, Australia and New Dilan. To noticed that if the US do not participate in the US EAS, Us will be facing with the risk of being marginalized. Therefore, on September 27, 2009, in Thailand, the United States signed to join the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC) on conditions to become a member of the EAS. Therefore, in 2010, the US and Russia became members of the EAS. On the ASEAN side: the presence of the US helps ASEAN to enhance its position and influence and keep its central role in the region. On the US side: The US will prove its position resolving many important regional issues in the EAS, which were previously "ignored" before. 3.1.2.3. In the framework of the ASEAN Defense Ministers Meeting (ADMM +) Về sự tham gia của Mỹ vào cơ chế ADMM+: Ngày từ khi thành lập, chính quyền của Tổng thống Obama đã tích cực hưởng ứng khuôn khổ hợp tác này của ASEAN và có nhiều đóng góp xây dựng môi trường an ninh khu vực như: tham gia nhóm chống khủng bố (CT) do Indonesia và Mỹ đồng chủ trì; Hỗ trợ nhân đạo và cứu trợ thảm họa kết hợp quân y (HADR/MM); Bộ Tư lệnh Thái Bình Dương đã tổ chức hội thảo với chủ đề Tăng cường nhận thức lĩnh vực an ninh biển tại khu vực; giúp đỡ các thành viên về đào tạo nhân lực, hỗ trợ trang bị, xây dựng lực lượng; Mỹ phối hợp cùng nhiều nước ASEAN phản đối hành động đơn phương của Trung Quốc trên Biển Đông,v.v. The US's participation in the ADMM + mechanism: Since its inception, President Obama's administration has actively responded to this cooperation framework of ASEAN and has made many contributions to building a regional security environment such as: join the anti-terrorism group (CT) co-chaired by Indonesia and the US; Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief combined with military medicine (HADR / MM); In addition, Pacific Command held a seminar with the topic: Increasing awareness in the field of marine security in the region to help members in human resource training, equipment support, and force building. Likewise, the US coordinates with many ASEAN countries to oppose China's unilateral action in the South China Sea, etc. In brief, ADMM + has become the highest level military security dialogue channel in the region, making an important contribution to maintaining peace, security and prosperity in Southeast Asia. 3.1.2.4. In the mechanism of the ASEAN - US Summit (ASEAN +1) US participation in ASEAN + 1: The US has a relationship with ASEAN very early, but the US does not want to be tied to ASEAN's multilateral mechanisms, the Us more highly attaches great importance to bilateral alliances. In fact, the view has changed over time. Content of ASEAN-US security-defense cooperation in ASEAN + 1: Political, security-defense cooperation is an important content in ASEAN- 16 US relations. Not only cooperating in counterterrorism, the US is also a funding sponsor to buy equipment, act as an executive advisor and directly train professional security staff in ASEAN countries. The US also helps ASEAN and its member countries in the fight against transnational crime; drug prevention, rescue, prevention of epidemics and natural disasters; sharing intelligence and financial information on terrorist organizations; support for capacity building of law enforcement agencies; aid for security and military purposes in the field of: training and training of technical staff; mine clearance, etc. 3.2. Security-defense cooperation between ASEAN and the US on a number of major issues 3.2.1. ASEAN-US cooperation on counterterrorism issues The fact that the United States was under a terrorist attack quickly changed the ASEAN-US relations, and the Southeast Asia region was immediately identified as a "second front" in the fight against terrorism. Firstly, in cooperation with ASEAN, the two sides signed the "Joint Declaration on Cooperation in the Attack on International Terrorism" with the aim of cooperation to prevent, disrupt and combat national terrorism. The US and ASEAN agreed to apply the ASEAN Cooperation Plan to strengthen US-ASEAN relations. Second, the US promotes counterterrorism cooperation with a number of ASEAN countries that are at high risk of terrorism such as the Philippines; Thailand; Singapore; Indonesia, etc. Third, taking advantage of the name of anti-terrorism, the US has gradually deployed forces and arranged modern weapons and equipment in Southeast Asia. 3.2.2. ASEAN-US cooperation on the South China Sea disputes and maritime security and safety 3.2.2.1. The issue of sovereignty disputes in the South China Sea The South China Sea has an important geostrategic position in economic, political and military terms, and ASEAN and the US both have strategic interests in the East Sea region. From 1991 to 2001: After the Cold War, ASEAN and the US changed their views on the South China Sea issue. The word "not interested" by the ASEAN side has "concerned, cared more"; The US side "does not interfere", then "begins to participate deeply" in the South China Sea issue. From 2001 to 2008: The US continues to support ASEAN's position on the East Sea situation; policy change form response, precaution into prevention and isolation from China; ASEAN and China reached agreement on the Declaration of the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC). The United States actively expands military and security cooperation with ASEAN and its member countries through mechanisms such as ASEAN +1, the ARF Regional Forum, etc. 17 The US supports ASEAN's view of dispute settlement in the South China Sea through peaceful means through diplomatic processes and international law compliance. In its relations with its allies and partners, the United States has shifted from “stealthy” defending to op

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