Ecogeomorphology research as a base for appropriate teresstorial planning at nghe an province

The sense of geomorphology in the whole ecosystem elements was

point out over 100 year ago. The continuing development help to

demonstrate that ecogeomorphology study is a branch of

geomorphology with inter- intra disciplinery, dealing with ecosystem

and enviromental problems for ensure sustainable development.

3. The analyse and assessment of natural condition, social-economic

and evironmental situation, those influence to Nghe A

ecogeomorphology pattern with main results:

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Chapter 3: Ecological geomorphology of Nghe An province The dissertation is presented in 143 pages, 32 tables of data, 28 drawings (maps, maps), 107 references in Vietnamese and foreign languages. CHAPTER 1. Rationales and Methodology 1.1. Theoretical foundation for ecological geomorphology 1.1.1. Concept of ecological geography a). Definition Darwin (1881), referring to the aspect of ecologic geomorphic when study the role of earthworms in soil formation and vegetation development [63]; Cowles HC (1899) examines the ecological relationship of Lake Michigan sand dunes [68]. They are seemed to be the primary authors on this branch science. The ecogeomorphology terminology also used by scientists such as Timofeev DA (1991), Hupp et al. (1995), Butler et al. (1995), Julie Simard J (2010), Joseph M et al. (2011), Butler David R (2013) ... According to Russian Geographic Dictionaries (2015), the eogeomorphological term was defined as "... study the influence of terrain and terrain processes on organisms, including humans "[91]. Although there is still remain a gap among the authors, the core of ecgeomorpholocial study is considered to be a geomorphology discipline, using an ecological approach based on multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary principles, towards sustainable development. b). Objects and tasks of ecological geomorphology The object of the study is the interactions between geomorphologic systems and human society (broadly speaking, the biological world, including human beings). The mission has two tasks: 6 1). Analyzes the state of geomorphologic systems and their changes by the influence of natural and human processes. Addressing this task helps explain the structure and development of different geomorphologic systems and provides links between geomorphologic systems and the environment, including human activity. 2). Analysis of ecosystem status and changes due to geomorphological characteristics and their forming dynamics. With information on the structure of the system, it is possible to determine the type and level of human impact on the system and the adverse effect of the system on human well-being. 1.1.2. Overview of ecogeomorphological studies a. In the world Studies on the dominance of topography to the development of biosphere, or vice versa, the impact of bio factors on terrain have been developed in parallel with traditional geological and biological sciences. It began in the late eighteenth century, but has been quiet for some decades, with representatives such as Timofeev, Gеrаsimov, Olson, Hack and Goodlet. Timofeev "Ecogeomorphology, objects, objectives and tasks"; Martin and Melissa Parsons "Ecogeomorphology: an interdisciplinary approach to river science". Sergio Fagherazzi et al. “Ecogeomorphology of tidal mash”. Wheaton J.M identifies the specializations of science, especially those related to the ecogeomorphology in the traditional sciences, as shown in Figure 1.2. b. In Viet Nam Anh Lai Huy, Tuan Tong Phuc, 2005 "Ecological geomorphology in territorial organization planning (taking Ke Go nature reserve as an example)". Anh Lai Huy, Tuan Tong Phuc, 2009 "Ecological 7 approach to water supply solutions for Na Son town, Dien Bien Dong district, Dien Bien province". The 2 paper was primary present ecogeomorphology concept in Vietnam. The papers content dealing with geomorphological attributes be able to support different types of territorial organization and at the same time reflect the ecological risks. Recently, Thao Nguyen Van (2015), in the PhD thesis "Research on terrain changes with coastal forest ecosystems in Quang Ninh province on the basis of application of remote sensing technology and GIS" presenting geomorphology objects and bio factors and their relationships. In 2016, Vu Van Phai and his colleagues given the set of ecogeomorphology study in general geomorphology science in particular and the earth sciences in general, and also affirmed that this is the new research direction spotted in our country. 1.2. Application aspects of ecogeomorphology The Ecogeomorphology study is an applied research approach, particularly for the rehabilitation and management of ecosystems based on interactions between landform and biogeography. However, in this study, the most common aspect is annexation with territorial organization in the categories of territorial organization, development planning and environmental protection planning. 1.3. Approaches and views Use a systematic approach to examine the interrelationship between the of material and energy cycle within and between the ecogeomorphological units. This approach is based on integrated geographic perspectives and sustainable development for territorial units. This approach is based on integrated perspective, a territorial perspective and a view of sustainable development. 8 1.4. Research Methods The methods used for the study included: data collection and analysis; field survey; remote sensing; geomorphological analysis; geodynamics formation; geomorphology generation; combo evaluation; mapping and geographic information systems; evaluate the ecogeomorphology stability index. The techniques for determining the ecogeomorphology stability index: each class of object information with an evaluation scores of the stability, and then normalized to a scale of 0 to 1. The smallest score get value of 0 and the highest score get value of 1. The ecogeomorphology stability index was given by an average value of overall normalized element factors. 1.5. Research progress The research process shown in Figure 1.6, consisting of 3 steps: data collection, field survey, update data, checking field trip; Analyse and evaluate the characteristics of Nghe An territorial, determine the stability index, ecogeomorphological zoning; Proposed rational use of the Nghe An province. Chapter 1 summary Ecogeomorphology concept was introduced over hundred year ago. Even that, the ecogeomorphology study was new research style in Vietnam. The ecogeomorphology documents shows the differences among authors with some debate, but the main thing point out that Ecogeomorphology research branch is dealing with interrelationship among biology and geomorphology system within whole nature system. Those point of views as a base for determining object, target and methodology on ecogeomorphology research, and also helpful for territorial planning in term of sustainable development. 9 Chapter 2. THE ECOGEOMORPHOLOGICAL FORMING FACTORS AT NGHE AN PROVINCE 2.1. Natural characters 2.1.1. Geography position Nghe An province located at central of North Central region, boundaries with Thanh Hoa province at northen, Ha Tinh province at southern, Lao republic at weastern and east sea at eastern. 2.1.2. Geometric topographic characters Gemetric topographic character (slop, vertical and horrizon dissection, wetness index) was obtained from dem base on topography map at scan 1/50.000. Those as the contribution to ecogeomorphology pattern at Nghe An. The geometric maps shows the big distingust among locations, expectialy at mountain area. 2.1.3. Geology characters Primery set of local geo-material and topo energy, with two strata-tectonic zones: Truong Son array and west-north block. The difference of tectonic moverment velocity at each areas with their matterial play the important role in the set of exogenous processes as well as their intencity. At Nghe An, the rock forms was diversity, those include indogenous rock (mainly intrude magma, and some bazan area at Thai Hoa, Nghia Dan district), metamophic rock (marble blocks at Quy Chau, Quy Hop distrtics), and about 2/3 of the province is sedimentary rocks. 2.1.4. Climate character Nghe An province influenced by moonsoon climate with cold winter, and two season: hot, hight humid and rainfall at summer, and cold at 10 winter. The annual rainfall about 950m-2000m, and also divided to two season is low and hight rallfall level. The combination of temperater, rainfall and ecology criterias presentes 24 eco-climate forms. 2.1.5. Hydrology condition Nghe An have 7 basin, inwhich 6 short an small basin located seaside. Only Ca Basin have an area 15.346 sq.km, take up 93,1% province terristorian, and the river lengh is 361 km. Annualy, the province land received 13,5 bil curbic metric surface water, equavalency with 820mm surface, and Cv reached 0,47. The Nghe An surface water resources divided to 5 region with difference on exploitation potention, ranged: (1) Hoang Mai area; (2) Upper part of Ca river basin; (3) Middle part of Ca river basin; (4) Hieu river basin; (5) Downstream Ca river basin. 2.1.6. Geohydrology character Nghe An have three aquiffer groups: hole aquiffers; cracking aquiffers; and almost no water block. In general, the ground water resources at poor to middle level. The potention to ground water exploitation was limited at certain social-economic condition. 2.1.7. Pedology character According to gengerous classification, the soil type at Nghe An located in two group (sedimentary and weathering soil). Sedimentary soil 247.774 ha occupied 16% province area. Inspite lown proportion, but those are hight social economic activities go in hand with hight sentivity with global climate change and sea water level rising. The weathering soil almost using for forestry sector, but was recorded with the sigh of negative changing. 11 2.1.8. Biology character The trend of moverment from natural ecosystem to human ecosysterm was dominate. Event at Natural part, Natural prevention regions have record the vilence activities. Accoding to biology statistical, the province have 2.608 plants species, 211 vascular plants family. The animal branch also more than less diversity with 490 vertebrate and amphibians species, in which 124 mammal species, 293 birds species, 50 reptiles species and 23 frog species; 390 insect species; the water animal belong 5 set, 14 family and 51 sub-family. 2.2. Social economic condition 2.2.1. Economic sectors Positive changing on economic structure at period 2010-2016 (fig.2.12). In other hand, economic development cause pressures on environmental, in which higher pressures at lowland in compare with mountain land. Event in mountain area, go in hand with vegetation degradation, there are occurred some hotspots of mineral exploitation and waste dumping, those actually need to pay attention. Figure 2.12. Economy structure change during period 2010-2016 Tổng GTXS Năm 2010: 51.911.449 tr.đ Năm 2016: 129.535.431 tr.đ 12 2.2.2. Land used character At lowland area, the economic model have change as respont to short time period market demend, that cause harmfull to environment, but the economic benefit still remain debate. The substantial land was change to infrastructure building, industry, urban, those have high potention for environmental risk At mountain land, model upland rise can meet at many area, but their economic benefit very limited and cause many environmental problem. The forestry land also have low benefit, with cultivate species those limited on soil reclarmation. At national park, natural conserve areas, allway faced with violence activities. The low economic benefit is become obtacle for development, expectially with tribal groups. 2.3. Environmental situation and natural disaster 2.3.1. Environmental situation According to annual reports of environmental monitoring program by Nghe An Resources and Environmental service during period 2010- 2014 shows that: the increasing of resources exploitation for economic development cause some adverse effects, such as mineral exploitation industry, forestry industry, hydroelectric, infrastructure building. In addition, the tourism development projects also cause some problems in environmental issue and local livelihoods. 2.3.1. Natural disaster influence to ecogeomorphology character Those can harm to ecosytem and finally cause demage to human benefit. Beyond abover point of view, at Nghe An province, the natural disaster was classified by: soil erosion, landslide, flood, beach and bank erosion, santy intrusion, geology fraction, earthquake and tsunami. In which, the soil errosion occured in vast area, that slowly reducing production efficiency but do not attractive to people, but in 13 long period will become disater; the flash floods, flooding, landslide only occured in narrow area, but ussually goes with the lose of lives, infrastructure and as consequence have more attactivenes. 2.4. Synthetic assessment of natural and social factors to ecogeomorphology balance 2.4.1. Indigenous factors group The rocks style:more then less diversity, but main area proportioin is sandy, shale stone. The intrusion rocks located at some magma blocks and bazan eruption at Nghia Dan. The quaternary sediment located at seaside land and bottom velleys. The tectonic moverment: belong to two strata-tectonic zone named Truong Son array and Tay Bac Block with 10 difference moverment velocity [1]. Tectonic faults: maily effected by Song Ca- Rao Nay system. They can cause earthquake with Mmax=6,1-6,5; h=15-20km, Iomax=8 [56]. 2.4.2. Exogenous factor group Climate factor: L. Peltier (1950) [70] establish a scheme discrible the interrelation between temperature, rainfall and exogenous process. Compare the scheme with Nghe An climate condition point out the dominate of chemical weathering, landslide and soil erosion. The physical errosion only occure ate some area, those have low rainfall and temperature. Hydrology factor: Surface water regime are strong regional distinguish. The human water body stocks and dyke are move and more contribute to natural processes. Groundwater factor: plays the role in landslide process, in other hand it help for biology development, expecially during dry season. Soil factor: sensitive for soil degradation caused by surface and rill, inter-rill errosion. Each soil unit presents their resistence level but it 14 will change due to the obtain of grit in surface land, mono vegetation species and unappropriate cultivate method. Vegetation cover factor: althought hight cover rate, but not go in hand with density, and usually violate event. The main point is local ecosystem values was not well performed and apply to soical economic development. In addition, the land protection function of vegetation cover was variesty to their species and density. Wave factor: along 82 km sea beach, mainly sand, silt, mud styles, those sense to wave action, espectialy during storm event. Because the lowland have highest human properties density, consequency the need for stratagic plan to avoid nagative effect. Tidal and sea level rise in storm: the daily tidal with amplitude about 3-4m at northern Hoi mouth and 1.2-2.5m at southern Hoi mouth [44]. The sea water level rise in storm is 0,6-0,7m in average, and can reachs maximum 2,5-2,6m [42], those are criterias for terristorial planing. At given time (10/2017; 8/2018), the sea water level rise during storm and high tidal cause sea over dyke flood at Dien Chau, Quynh Luu with huge damage. Along coast current: be part of Tonkin bay current sustem with two season direction, southest in winter and northest in summer. The tendency of lower river sediment load and change water river regime also contribute to potention change of the along coast current with possible coast errosion. Sea level rise: the sea level rising cause land errosion was confirm by many author. Nghe An province also have same situation with the inrcreasing of beach erossion. 2.4.3. Human factor group Human activities play importance role in the Nghe An ecosytems, but still remain the lack for appropriate measure methodology and for 15 evaluation their impacts. In certain circumstance, the evaluation only in term of quality access. 2.4.4. Natural hazard group Seem as the results of interaction between natural system and human activities which can cause harmfull for human properties as well as ecosystem healthy. The main hazard styles at Nghe An are: flooding, flash floods, soil erosion, beach erosion, drought. The earthquake, tsunami, sea level rive have low occurence frequency but also be paid attention in the province development stratagy. Chapter 2 summary Nghe An have hight diversity of natural conditions, social-economic and enviromental situation. The localization of a synthetic system at Nghe An province presents their components and the interrelationship. The generation alnalyzation present their forming componets and changing dynamic, in which recognize the increasing of human activities. The chapter 2 result as a scientific base for study ecogeomorphological pattern study at Nghe An province. Chapter 3. ECOGEOMORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND APPROPRIATE TERESSTORIAL USING AT NGHE AN PROVINCE 3.1. Geomorphology Character of Nghe An province 3.1.1. Geomorphology forms Geomorphology form was given by topographic analyse (slope, vertical and horison dicsection), field trips, geology data, soil map and Remote sensing data. The geomorphological map was established at scale 1/100.000 with 16 erosion forms and 9 sedimentation forms. In 16 which the erosion form is domination in term of area, the sedimetation form is only present at lowland and bottom valley. 3.1.2. Geomorphological styles The detail analyse as a base for synthesic land form with geomorphological style – a almost individual system with their land form and changing processes (fig 3.2, with 14 geomorphological styles). In which, the middle mountain develop over uplift and stepeness structure locate at highest mountain area; the low mountain style locate bettween geology blocks; Limestone style at small uplift block at Tan Ky – Con Cuong districts; Hill and bazan cover style at Nghia Dan district; and the more mosaic pattern at lowland reflect interaction of sea, land and human dynamic. 3.2. Ecosystem character at Nghe An province 3.2.1. Eveluation of forming and changing dynamic In general, climate change and sea level rise play most importance role, in particular each location was distinguish by exploitation, production and waste disposal. 3.2.2. Ecosystem pattern Generation point of view and biology documents, should be establish ecosystem unit at Nghe An, involving 17 ecosystem style (fig 3.3). At western Nghe An, the domination of natural ecosystem style. In other hand, at eastern province, ecosystem was characterized by manmade or almost change by human activities. 3.3. Determination of ecogeomorphology stability index at Nghe An 3.3.1. The stability index of natural factors to the ecosytem The natural factor for evaluation involving: 17 + Topographic parameter: slope, vertical and horizon dissection. The evaluate results present at table 3.2. + Climate parameter: result present at table 3.4 + Soil parameter: result present at table 3.5. + Hydrology parameter: result present at table 3.6. + Natural hazard parameter: result present at table 3.7. 3.3.2. The stability index of ecosystem to geomorphology form + Land used pattern parameter: result present at table 3.8. + Forestry pattern parameter: result present at table 3.9. + NDVI index: the value obtain from average of maximum and minimum vegetation cover stutus (september-october 2016 and February – march 2017). The value was nomanization in the range 0- 1, in which highest value assign 1 and lowest assign 0. + Population density: statical base on city, districts adminitration boundary, and then normanization in the range 0-1. In which Vinh city (highest, 3.025 p/sq.km) assign value 0 and Tuong Dung district (lowest, 26 p/sp.km) assign value 1. 3.3.3. Calculate ecogeomorphology stablity index The abover parameter have been nomanization on scale 0-1, and ecogeomorpholgical stablity index was calcutate as an average of over all values with the Arcgis tool. The result shows at fig.3.3. In general, the ecogeomorphological stability index can be range from 0 to 1, in which more close to 1 mean more stable and vise versa. 3.4. Ecogeomorphological zonning at Nghe An province 3.4.1. Ecogeomorphological mapping The ecogeomorphological mapping was establish as primery synthetic of ecogeomorphological character, with pay more attention 18 on geomorphological style and ecosytem style. The result show at fig 3.4 and table 3.10. 3.4.2. Ecogeomorphological zonning Ecogeomorphological zonning map are highest synthetic for create a base of providing an appropriate terrestorial organizatioin. The map at 1/200.000 scale (fig 3.5), involve 5 zones (A,B,C,D,E) and 14 sub- zones. The A zone have 2 sub-zone (A1,A2), the B zone have 2 sub- zone (B1,B2), the C zone stay along it self, the D zone have 4 sub- zone (D1, D2, D3, D4) and E zone more complicate with 5 sub-zone (E1,E2,E3,E4,E5). 3.5. Terristorial organization based on ecogeomorphologic zones 3.5.1. The role of ecogeomorphological zones in appropriate teresstorial organization For pupose of sustainalbe development, the need during practive development activities are the consideration the interrelationship among component factor to maintain ecosystem balancy and environmental protection. Those thing possible to meet when dealing with ecogeomorphology study with systematic approach. 3.5.3. General accessment of Nghe An Social-economic master planning period to 2020 and vision to 2030 The analyses of terrestorial organization of development projects shows the main point are: 1. At mountain region: biodiversity protection, forestry sectors, ecotourism, hydroelectric and mineral exploitation industry. 2. Hill and denta region: cultivate, breed, aquaculture, urban development, industry and marine tourism. 3.5.3. Appropriate terristorial organization based on ecogeomorphology zone units 19 Based on the analyse of ecogeomorphology zone unit with their certain situation and changing trend, those given some orientation: A. Middle and low mountain at nourth west zone (Que Phong, Tuong Duong, Ky Son districts) A1. Middle mountain Que Phong – Ky Son sub-zone: Forest protection, forest prodcution; eco-tourism development. Support for reserach and advertisement of their biodiversity values. A.2. Low mountain Quy Chau – Quy Hop sub-unit: rehibilitate natural forest, plantation forest, hydroelectric power at small and middle zise; mineral exploitation. B. Middle-low mountain south-west zone (Anh Son, Con Cuon, Tuong Duong, Ky Son districts). B1. Middle mountain Pu Mat national park sub-zone: Strickly protect natural forest ecosystem at Pu Mat national park; develop of eco- tourism, discover tourism; tribal group livelihood change to tourism. C. Ca river valley zone (nouthern Con Cuong to Ky Son district): 01 sub-zone: N o 7 nation road economic corridor: protective forest and production forest; develope the N o 7 nation road; cultivate for region demant; built up tourism and trade infrastructure in relative to neighbour region as well as Lao PRC; supporting for tribal group development. D. Low mountain – hill zone D1. Hill Nghia Dan – Tan Ky sub-zone: developt industry plants (coffe, tea, rubber, sugar-cane), fruit plants (orange, lemon); processing industry at Phu Quy; grass field for milk cow, buffalo; built waste treatment center. D2: low mountain-hill Tan Ky sub-zone: protect the limstone ecosytem; develop the local medicine plants and other special specie; possible exploit some limstone sites. 20 D3: Hill Yen Thanh – Tan Ky sub-zone: develop the production forest, fruit plant and short-day cropt; create landscape for tourism development in relative with delta area; built small irrigation lake; possible to select a site for waste treatment for the area as well as downstream region. D4. Hill Anh Son – Thanh Chuong sub-zone: develop forestry and agriculture; built up infrastructure for tourim development; built small lake for irrigation; possible to exploit limstone, sand or creat a center for waste treasment event for other region. E. Hill – plan along coast E1. Vinh city sub-zone: develop Vinh City to reach 1 st class urban; built up indutry park; develop urban vegetation, conditioned lake for landscape beauty and environmental healthy; complete a waste collection and treatment system;

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