Implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi - Dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province

Inspection, handling of violations, promoting democracy, publicity and

transparency in the implementation of poverty reduction policies according to local

multidimensional poverty lines

Annually, the Steering Committee for Poverty Reduction at all levels develops

programs and plans on actual inspection and supervision of the process of poverty

reduction, coordination of mass organizations, direct supervision to households in

order to withdraw. experience and rectify errors in the implementation process of the

establishment.

Through checking and supervising activities, there has been no mistake about

poverty reduction work and the implementation of poverty reduction policies

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of countries, made recommendations for the most appropriate policy implementation such as: building infrastructure, taking care of education and medical examination and treatment. ..based on the country's existing "limited" capital resources. Some studies emphasize job seeking for people because of lack of jobs has pushed people to poverty. 1.2.2. Studies on Vietnam's poverty reduction policies The studies mainly provide policy recommendations in both planning and implementation, focusing on finding solutions to achieve overarching goals across the territory. 1.2.3 Studies on implementation of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines Most policy evaluation studies are based on a qualitative basis and perceptual indicators drawn from sociological surveys but not on a specific set of criteria so conclusions and recommendations are made. may not be appropriate. 1.3. The dissertation issues need to be focused on research and solving Firstly, systematize and build a theoretical framework for implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines. 8 Secondly, to survey and evaluate the status of implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province. Thirdly, develop solutions to improve the effectiveness of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province. For these reasons, the PhD student has chosen the issue of "Implementation of poverty reduction policy based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province" as a doctoral thesis of Political Science. Conclusion of chapter 1 Although a number of studies have focused on evaluating some key components of poverty reduction policies based on the multi-dimensional approach poverty line, they have just stopped at assessing and identifying the inadequacies in realizing poverty. poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines. From the overview of the research situation, the author gave both theoretical and practical suggestions on the effective implementation of poverty reduction policies based on the multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in the near future. Chapster 2 THEORETICAL BASIS AND PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE ABOUT ENFORCEMENT OF POVERTY REDUCTION POLICIES ACCORDING TO POOR STANDARDS APPROACH MULTIDIMENSIONAL 2.1. Basic theoretical issues about poverty according to the multi- dimensional approach poverty line and the poverty reduction policy based on the multi-dimensional approach poverty line 2.1.1. Poverty follows the multi-dimensional approach to poverty 2.1.1.1. The concept of multidimensional poverty Poverty is a situation in which a part of the population does not have the conditions of life such as eating, dressing, housing, sanitation, health, education, transportation, and the right to participate in community decisions. 9 2.1.1.2. Poverty line in Vietnam Approaching unidirectional poverty measurement in the period 1993-2015 Since 1993, Vietnam has changed the poverty line 7 times. Poverty follows the multi-dimensional approach to poverty Poverty line: The poverty line is a measure of who is poor to implement support policies to ensure equity in the implementation of poverty reduction policies. Multi-dimensional approach poverty lines: The Prime Minister's Decision 59/2015 clearly defines the criteria for multidimensional poverty measurement applied for the period 2016-2020; The standard of poor, near-poor and average-living households applies for the period 2016-2020. 2.1.2. Poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines 2.1.2.1 Definition of policy Policy is a specific line associated with political power, with the ruling party and with the state-state power apparatus of a political party or a powerful subject on a certain field with measures, plan to do that way. 2.1.2.2 Poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines The poverty reduction policy based on multidimensional poverty line is a system of general poverty reduction policies and specific poverty reduction policies for projects under the National target program on sustainable poverty reduction in districts poor, poor communes, villages, extremely difficult villages. 2.1.2.3 Structure of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines The goals of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional poverty lines: sustainable poverty reduction, limiting re-poverty; economic growth, ensuring social security, improving living standards, increasing people's income, especially in poor areas, creating favorable conditions for the poor and poor households to access social services. Basic chance Principles for directing the implementation of poverty reduction policies according to the multi-dimensional approach poverty lines: in terms of the absolute number of poor households that can be reduced within a given period of 10 time; In terms of the quality of poverty reduction, it is true that the poor's life has been improved after the supporting effect, the income gap with other population groups has been shortened Poverty status. Scope and subjects of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines: scope of policy implementation, who are the beneficiaries. The content of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines: is a specific activity or more depending on the goals of each policy. Time for implementing the poverty reduction policy based on multi- dimensional poverty line: defining implementation time. Resources for implementing poverty reduction policies based on multidimensional poverty lines: policies will not be able to be implemented or implemented effectively if the resources for implementing policies are not fully and carefully calculated. The agency that manages and implements the poverty reduction policy according to the multi-dimensional approach poverty line: specifies who is in charge of implementing the policy and who will be implementing the specific activities of the policy. 2.1.2.4 The role of poverty reduction policies based on the multi-dimensional approach poverty lines Poverty reduction according to multi-dimensional approach poverty lines - pillars and solutions for social security. Poverty reduction according to the multi- dimensional poverty line and ensuring social security are geared towards human development, ensuring people's lives. 2.2. Implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines 2.2.1. Enforce policies in the policy cycle 2.2.1.1. Policy cycle The policy cycle is a process of rotating steps from starting policy to determining the effectiveness of policy in social life [26, pp.166-190]. In Vietnam, policy implementation is the stage of realizing policies in social life - the stage of organizing the implementation of selected policy solutions and examining the implementation. 11 2.2.1.2. Policy implementation and poverty reduction policy based on multi- dimensional approach poverty lines Implementing the poverty reduction policy based on multi-dimensional poverty line is the process of turning related policies, directions and measures into practical results through organized activities in the state apparatus and the Extensive participation of organizations, units, families, individuals and the whole society. 2.2.2. Subjects, subjects, evaluation criteria and factors affecting the implementation of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines 2.2.2.1. Subjects and subjects participating in the implementation of poverty reduction policies according to the multi-dimensional approach poverty lines - The State plays the role of the subject, and the implementation of policies must mobilize the wide participation of all organizations, units, families, individuals and the whole society. - The objects of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines are all people. 2.2.2.2. Criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of implementing poverty reduction policies according to the multi-dimensional approach poverty lines - The validity of the policy is reflected in the level of achieving the set goals. - The effectiveness of the policy reflects the correlation between the results given by the policy and the spent costs. - The equity of the policy is reflected in the implementation of income redistribution, helping vulnerable people to overcome income inequality among social groups. - The impact of the policy reflects the final outcome of the policy. - Level of resolving poverty reduction policies according to the multi-dimensional approach poverty line. 2.2.2.3 Factors affecting the implementation of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines Factors affecting the implementation of poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional poverty lines: Economic growth; Industrialization, modernization and urbanization; Natural disasters, epidemics, environmental pollution, climate 12 change; Organizational and managerial capacity of the state apparatus at all levels; Awareness of society and people. 2.2.3. The States role in implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines 2.2.3.1. The objective indispensability of the government's implementation of poverty reduction policies based on the multi-dimensional approach poverty line First, comes from one of two basic functions of the state - social function. Secondly, overcoming the limitations of market economy. Thirdly, ensure social security, improve social welfare, protect the rights of all people. Fourthly, it is a service that the private sector can hardly undertake fully and completely. 2.3. Experiences in some localities and lessons on implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines for Vinh Long province 2.3.1 Experience in implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi- dimensional approach poverty lines in Thai Binh province Thai Binh Province has implemented programs and projects to support the poor households synchronously and effectively, contributing to improving the material and spiritual life of the poor, ensuring social security, stabilizing life, sustainable poverty reduction. 2.3.2 Experience in implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi- dimensional approach poverty lines in Tra Vinh province Sustainable poverty reduction is one of 06 key tasks of Tra Vinh with the participation of the whole political system. However, besides the results of implementing poverty reduction in Tra Vinh province, there are still limitations. 2.3.3 Lessons learned for Vinh Long province Firstly, strengthening the role of the entire political system in implementing poverty reduction policies in line with local reality. Secondly, renewing the way to organize credit loans in a smooth, efficient and right manner to the poor subjects. Thirdly, implement the universal education policy, create favorable conditions for the children of the poor to study, set up a low interest rate loan development education fund for university and vocational training. Fourthly, to implement social protection policies, health insurance for the poor, solve jobs and solve negative phenomena in poverty reduction. Fifth, to avoid relapsing into poverty, it is necessary to combine 13 economic development with environmental protection, cultural development, human resource development, democracy implementation and social equality. Sixth, to encourage production development, market development of the poor's product consumption. Seventh, support the construction of infrastructure systems to facilitate access to economic and social services. Conclusion of chapter 2 Multidimensional poverty is a new approach to limit the omission of objects who are not income-poor but are poor in other dimensions. The thesis has clarified the concept of poverty reduction under the multi- dimensional approach poverty line; new points in the implementation of poverty reduction under the multi-dimensional approach poverty line, which are consistent with the thesis: poverty reduction based on the multi-dimensional approach poverty line on the basis of ensuring the minimum living standards needs of the poor, not just about income, but including meeting basic social service needs. Chapter 3 CURRENT SITUATION OF IMPLEMENTATION OF POVERTY POLICY ACCORDING TO THE POOR STANDARD POSTER APPROACH OF THE PROVINCE VINH LONG 3.1. The natural, economic and social conditions of Vinh Long province impact on the implementation of poverty reduction policies based on multi dimensional approach poverty lines 3.1.1. Natural condition Vinh Long has a natural area of 1,479,128 km2, equal to 0.4% of the country's area. The terrain of Vinh Long is relatively flat, the rivers are interlaced, the traffic is convenient. The province has Highway 1 and Highway 53 passing through, this is an important transport bridge between Ho Chi Minh City and Can Tho. Cultivation is a strength of the province. 3.1.2 Socio-economic conditions of Vinh Long province Vinh Long has two key areas: the economic region belongs to the Tien river area; economic region in Hau river area. 14 However, the economic development of Vinh Long is not commensurate with its potential, the economic structure is still in the form of monoculture of rice. The handicraft and construction sector is underdeveloped and the infrastructure is inferior to some provinces in the Mekong Delta. 3.1.2. Implementation of poverty reduction policies in Vinh Long from 2011 to 2015 3.1.2.1 Direction and administration of the implementation of the poverty reduction program Vinh Long Provincial Party Committee issued Program No. 05-CTr / TU, dated October 17, 2011 on job creation and sustainable poverty reduction in the 2011-2015 period; The Provincial People's Committee issued Decision No. 1369 / QD-UBND dated August 28, 2012 on the Plan for job creation and sustainable poverty reduction in the 2011-2015 period and the annual implementation plan; Departments, agencies, unions of provinces, districts and communes shall base on their assigned tasks, develop annual plans to integrate the inspection, periodic evaluation and intensify propagation and dissemination of practical guidance. present policies on poverty reduction programs, focusing on implementing policies for the poor associated with the construction program new countryside. 3.1.2.2 Implementation status and implementation results of poverty reduction policies After 5 years of implementing the Action Program 05 of the Provincial Party Committee, Vinh Long has achieved many practical results. People's living standards have been gradually increased, the gap between rich and poor has narrowed. The program of job creation and sustainable poverty reduction has been interested in implementation and identified as one of the key tasks by all levels and sectors. To make this program effective, the province has focused its resources on job creation, poverty reduction as well as social security implementation. As a result, there are many poor households gradually getting out of poverty sustainably. 3.1.2.3 Assessment of the implementation of poverty reduction policies in Vinh Long province in the period of 2011-2015 These achievements Regarding program design: The national target program on sustainable poverty reduction in the 2011-2015 period is promulgated in accordance with the local socio-economic context and implemented synchronously with appropriate 15 contents and solutions. and achieved high results, mobilizing socialization of organizations, individuals, businesses, ... has contributed to supporting the poor to overcome difficulties to escape poverty; Training and retraining to improve the capacity of poverty reduction officials at all levels is focused; shortcomings and difficulties in the process of program implementation have been overcome. Limitations in the implementation of poverty reduction policies in Vinh Long province in the period of 2011-2015 The result of poverty reduction is not really sustainable, the quality of poverty reduction is not high. Policies to support residential land, production land and daily- life water have not been basically solved. Policies to support poverty reduction often have big goals, but the implementation time is short, the support level is low; funding is not sufficient, slow and asynchronous, so the implementation has not been effective. Many poverty reduction programs/projects have to extend their implementation time. Poverty reduction programs and projects are managed by many ministries and branches, with different management and operation mechanisms, limiting the integration of policies and balancing common resources. Table 3.1 Statistics of poor households in Vinh Long province period 2011 – 2015 Year Poor household rate (%) City (%) Countryside (%) 2011 7.91 4.38 8.61 2012 5.89 3.26 6.40 2013 4.57 2.83 4.95 2014 3.54 2.13 3.84 2015 6.26 3.54 6.82 Source: (61) Reason: A small number of people still think about relying on support policies of the State and community. A number of policies to support production development are still spread, a number of policies overlap in content and geographical areas, beneficiaries. A number of policies have low norms, ineffective effectiveness, and are slowly amended and supplemented. The coordination between ministries, branches and localities is not really comprehensive and timely; People's participation in policy formulation and implementation is limited. 3.2 Implementing the poverty reduction policy based on multidimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province in the period of 2016-2019 16 3.2.1 Issue documents and plan implementation In the period from 2016 to 2019, based on the central guidance and the actual situation in the locality, Vinh Long province has issued many programs, policies and directives to implement the poverty reduction goals according to Multi-dimensional poverty line. 3.2.2. Organize the organization and coordinate the implementation The assignment and coordination in organizing the implementation of poverty reduction policies according to the multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province are implemented according to a relatively uniform organizational structure model from provincial to commune levels with various committees direct poverty reduction to hamlets. 3.2.3. The results of implementing the tasks, goals and targets of poverty reduction according to the multidimensional approach poverty line for the period 2016-2019 3.2.3.1. Results of implementation of programs and projects Implementing Program 135 to support infrastructure investment, support production development for extremely difficult hamlets and communes; implementing the project of production development, livelihood diversification and replication of poverty reduction models in communes and hamlets under Program 135 and communes outside Program 135 implemented in 07 districts and towns. 3.2.3.2. The results of implementing the poverty reduction policies based on the multidimensional approach poverty lines Health policy: support 100% health insurance cards for the poor and near- poor, support health insurance cards for new households out of poverty. Education and vocational training policies: tuition exemption and reduction, study expense support. Support vocational training for rural workers associated with industrial and agricultural extension programs to reach 117.1% of the target for the period 2016 - 2020. Regarding creating jobs: creating new jobs exceeding 33.26% of the plan, creating an average of 25,360 new jobs per year. Credit policy: Vinh Long has disbursed to 25,271 customers borrowed the program of new households escaping from poverty with a total lending of 505.7 billion VND; total debt collection was VND 94 billion with 4,459 households paying debts. Housing policy: supporting 7,007 houses for poor households, with a total amount of over VND 255,798 billion. The proportion of permanent housing in Vinh 17 Long province reaches 90.2% which is high in the Mekong Delta region (80.8%). Implement well the projects of production development, livelihood diversification and replication of poverty reduction models in 07 districts and towns such as breeding breeding cows, goats, chickens with biological pads, growing gray abalone mushrooms ... Information and propaganda has been diversified in form and content. 3.2.3.3. The allocation of resources to implement poverty reduction policies follows the local multidimensional poverty line The allocation of resources to implement poverty reduction policies timely and in accordance with regulations; coordinating between branches and levels, implementing the poverty reduction policy integrated with the National target programs, other policies such as: National target programs built new countryside. 3.2.3.4. The management and administration of the implementation of poverty reduction policies according to the local multidimensional poverty line Develop solutions and models for poverty reduction that are appropriate for each locality, strengthen the leadership of party committees and executive guidance of governments at all levels on poverty reduction. 3.2.3.5 Inspection, handling of violations, promoting democracy, publicity and transparency in the implementation of poverty reduction policies according to local multidimensional poverty lines Annually, the Steering Committee for Poverty Reduction at all levels develops programs and plans on actual inspection and supervision of the process of poverty reduction, coordination of mass organizations, direct supervision to households in order to withdraw. experience and rectify errors in the implementation process of the establishment. Through checking and supervising activities, there has been no mistake about poverty reduction work and the implementation of poverty reduction policies. 3.2.3.6 Results of implementing a number of components of poverty reduction policies based on multidimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province The poverty reduction policy based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province has been implemented by localities in the province with the following main contents: preferential credit to support life and production for people. poor; develop education and training for the poor; medical assistance, health care for the poor; infrastructure development, expansion of science and technology applications for the poor. 18 3.3 General assessment of poverty reduction policy implementation according to multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province 3.3.1 Achievements in implementing poverty reduction policies based on multi-dimensional approach poverty lines in Vinh Long province Following the direction of the National Assembly, the Government, the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs, the Provincial Party Committee and the People's Committee of Vinh Long province have focused on directing the construction and implementation of poverty reduction targets in the province. The role and responsibilities of the Party committees, the administration of the government and the coordination of mass organizations have been increasingly asserted and achieved specific results such as: the percentage of poor and near-poor households decreased. Over the years, the deficit indicators of the social service dimensions have decreased year by year, basically meeting the set targets. *Reason - There is a clear assignment for each member of the provincial Steering Committee in charge of each district, town and city to help care for poor and near- poor households. - Propaganda is rich and diverse in content, creating far-reaching effects and changing the awareness of poor households. Table 3.2: General data of poor households in Vinh Long province in the period of 2016-2019 Numerical order Year Total number of households Number of poor households Rati

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