Luận văn Nghiên cứu các thủ thuật nâng cao việc dạy kỹ năng nghe nói tiếng anh theo đường hướng giao tiếp cho giáo viên trung học cơ sở tại tỉnh Quảng Ngãi


Acknowledgements iv

List of abbreviations v

Part 1: Introduction

1. Rationale of the study 1

2. Aims of the study 2

3. Methods of the study 2

4. Scope of the study 2

5. Design of the study 2

Part 2: Development

Chapter 1: Literature Review 4

1.1. Introduction 4

1.2. An overview of techniques, methods and approaches 4

1.2.1. Definitions 4

1.2.2. History of methods / approaches 4

1.3. An overview of communicative language teaching 5

1.3.1. Definition 5

1.3.2. Principles 5

1.3.3. Techniques for language teaching 6

1.4. Summary 6

Chapter 2: An Investigation into the Current Performance of English Teaching and Learning in Junior High Schools in Quang Ngai Province 7

2.1. Introduction 7

2.2. The Junior High School Community in Quang Ngai Province 7

2.3. Students and learning requirements 7

2.4. Teachers and teaching methods 8

2.5. Materials and assessments 8

2.6. Data collection, findings and discussion 9

2.6.1. Data collection 9 The subjects 9 Instruments for data collection 9

2.6.2. Findings and discussion 9 Teachers’ Personal Information 9

• Age of teachers 9

• Teaching experience and training 9

• Qualifications 10 Information about Schools 10

• Access to resource at school 10

• Conditions that facilitate teaching 10

• Conditions that impede teaching 11 Students' Attitude 11

• Students' need for English 11

• Students' strengths and weaknesses 11 Teachers’ Performance and Perception 11

• Teachers' workload 11

• Professional support 11

• Teachers' responses to the new Tieng Anh 6-9 textbook series 11

• Teachers' perception of their own teaching 11 Remarks about class observations 13

• Methods 13

• Techniques 13

2.7. Summary 13

Chapter 3: Suggested Techniques to Improve the Teaching of Oral Skills for Junior High School Teachers in Quang Ngai Province 14

3.1. Techniques for teaching speaking 14

3.1.1. Introduction 14

3.1.2. Controlled speaking activities 15

3.1.3. Less controlled speaking activities 21

3.1.4. Summary 24


3.2. Techniques for teaching listening 24

3.2.1. Introduction 24

3.2.2. Pre-listening techniques 28

3.2.3. While-listening techniques 30

3.2.4. Post-listening techniques 31

3.2.5. Summary 32

3.3. Techniques for correcting students’spoken errors 32

3.3.1. Introduction 32

3.3.2. Correction Techniques 34

3.3.3. Summary 36

Part 3: Conclusion

1. Recapitulation 37

2. Limitations and suggestions for further study 38

References 39

Appendix 41














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tudents’ attention Gesture for silence and get students to listen by pointing to the teacher's ear. STEP 2: MODELLING Give the model. Speak clearly but naturally. Give the model two or three times with pauses so that the students can repeat it mentally to themselves. STEP 3: FULL CLASS REPETITIONS Repeat the model again. This time make gestures for them to repeat. Ask for three or four repetitions until the students are confident. STEP 4: HALF CLASS REPETITIONS Get half the class to repeat by gestures. Do not give verbal orders. This slows down the drill. STEP 5: SMALL GROUP REPETITIONS Get small groups to repeat. Make a circular direction with the teacher's hand in the direction of the group. Remember to smile if they do it well. The teacher remodels once or twice if the students have difficulties. STEP 6: INDIVIDUAL REPETITIONS Ask individuals to repeat. Point clearly and avoid using names. It does not matter if a different student responds, or two students instead of one. Using names slows down the drill. At this stage the teacher will hear mistakes clearly. Remodel if necessary and smile encouragingly . STEP 7: COMPLETION Finally, get a few more class repetitions. Each drill should only take about a minute. Remember to keep it flowing. Note : When they can say all the lines well, the teacher could ask one half of the class to be Student 1 and the other half Student 2. Drill a few times then swap roles. The Substitution Drill Remember that the original sentence structure from a drill can generate many other useful sentences. This usually goes easily and quickly once the main structure has been drilled. The substitutions can be prompted by pictures or mine. Example 1: ORIGINAL STUCTURE: How often do you | go | to the zoo? Introduce pictures of the park, the sports center, the mountain, the river, the kitchen and the school. Check if the students know the vocabulary. Set up a substitution drill. Teacher: (Show a picture of a park. Students should make a question.) Students: How often do you go to the park? Teacher: (continues with all the pictures) Now introduce some different responses. Model the pronunciation and practice with the students. Write these prompts on the board as a support for the students: once | twice | a week three times | a month four times | a year every day Repeat the same drill again. This time ask for a response by pointing to the response on the board. After they have enough practice, rub out the table and make a simpler one so that they have to think more. Example: 1 | 2 | week 3 | month 4 | year day Note: The students should now be ready for a pair work activity. PAIR WORK ACTIVITY (Tell the students they are now going to do some pair work.) 1. The teacher has already presented the language he wants the students to use. 2. TEACHER-STUDENT MODEL: Ask a student to stand. Teacher: How often do you go to the park? Student: Once a week. Teacher: How often do you play sports? Student: Twice a week. 3. OPEN PAIRS Choose two students who are sitting far away from each other. Ask them to stand. Get one to ask and one to answer. Use either pictures or prompts on the board to guide students to ask different questions. The answers should be realistic. Student 1: How often do you go camping? Student 2: Once a year. 4. SIMULTANEOUS PAIR WORK Now tell the students to work in pairs and ask each other how often they do things. They should take it in turns to ask. Go around and listen to them working. The teacher can leave some prompts on the board if necessary, e.g. zoo, park, sports, camping, fishing, mom. 5. PUBLIC CHECK Stop the activity and choose a random pair. Ask them to repeat the activity. Do the same with two other pairs. If the students know the teacher is going to check after the activity, they will work harder. 6. CORRECT ANY COMMON MISTAKES If the teacher has noticed any common mistakes, bring them to the attention of the students. FURTHER PRACTICE If the teacher has enough time and the students have mastered the structure, the teacher can give them some more practice. Show some pictures of sport and leisure activities. Elicit the language from students. How often do | you | VERB | NOUN? Teacher: (Show a picture of someone watching TV.) Students: How often do you watch TV? Teacher: (Show a picture of someone swimming.) Students: How often do you go swimming? Teacher: (Show a picture of someone listening to the radio) Students: How often do you listen to the radio? Elicit as many different actions as the teacher thinks the students will know, using pictures. Write prompts on the board. TV, RADIO, SWIMMING, FOOTBALL, HIKING, BOOKS. PAIR WORK: The teacher can ask the students to do the activity again. This time the teacher asks questions using prompts on the board. Drilling a Complete Dialogue If the teacher feels that a complete dialogue is suitable for the students to practice (with a speaking focus) then this is a good procedure to follow: (UNIT 11, TIẾNG ANH 6, pg 116) Salesgirl: Can I help you? Ba : Yes. I’d like some beef, please. Salesgirl: How much do you want? Ba : Two hundred grams of beef, please. Salesgirl: Two hundred grams of beef. Is there anything else? Ba : Yes. I need some eggs. Salesgirl: How many do you want? Ba : A dozen, please. STEP 1: PRESENTATION (Students should not open their books yet.) Students must understand what they are repeating. PRESENT VOCABULARY: Show pictures of different foods (oil, tea, chocolate, rice, beef, eggs, peas, soap, toothpaste). Present the words beef and egg. Check if the students understand the questions, “How much do you want?” and “How many do you want?” WRITE THEM ON THE BOARD. Bring their attention to the structure PRESENT SIMPLE (used for shopping people do every day). Explain that people use either HOW MUCH or HOW MANY with this structure. STEP 2: LISTENING ACTIVITY (Let the students listen to the dialogue first and focus on meaning.) Students must have their books closed. The teacher writes two guiding questions on the board. 1. How much beef does Ba want? 2. How many eggs does Ba want? The teacher plays/reads the dialogue. The teacher plays /reads it again if they don’t know the answers. STEP 3: BEGIN THE REPETITION (Display the dialogue on a flipchart.) The teacher models the first sentence. Students repeat. If students have PRONUNCIATION errors, focus their attention on the problem word and ask them to repeat just that word together as a class and individually. Continue through each line of the whole dialogue. Go through the whole dialogue with students repeating after the teacher. The teacher is the salesgirl. Students are Ba. Repeat the dialogue. Half the class is the salesgirl. Half the class is Ba. Students work in pairs. Each student should practice both parts. The teacher should go around and listen (MONITOR). Go over any common PRONUNCIATION mistakes. STEP 4: GAP-FILL EXERCISE (Listening) Ask the students to close their books and listen. The teacher is going to ask them to fill in the missing words. Read/play the dialogue again and stop before a key word. Make gestures for students to say the missing words. Example: Teacher: Yes. I’d like some... (PAUSE AND GESTURE) Students: beef STEP 5: PAIRWORK - ADAPTING THE DIALOGUE TO THEIR LIVES. (Using prompts) Explain to the students that they are going to do the dialogue again in pairs, using their own information. This time the teacher is going to encourage them to really think by only putting PROMPTS on the board. Example: Write the following on the board Student 1: I / help / you? Student 2: Student 1: much / you / want? Check that the students Student 2: can make the complete Student 1: half a kilo / pork / anything else? sentences from these Student 2: prompts. Student 1: many / you / want? Student 2: Before the teacher asks them to practice in pairs, do the dialogue with a few students and ask a pair to demonstrate it in front of the class. When simultaneous pair work has finished, ask some pairs to demonstrate. SUMMARY OF IMPORTANT POINTS Always present vocabulary, topic, structures and pronunciation first. The drill moves from the WHOLE CLASS to SIMULTANEOUS PAIR WORK. CHANGING the role while drilling keeps it interesting. After students have practiced the original dialogue in pairs, take it a step further by using prompts and if possible adapting the information to reflect THEIR LIVES. (real information) Always ask a pair to demonstrate the dialogue before doing simultaneous pair work to make sure everyone knows what to do. If students know they MIGHT be chosen to DEMONSTRATE after pair work, they will work harder and not speak in Vietnamese. 3.1.3. Less Controlled Speaking Activities Chain Game This is suitable for small class. In large classes, after demonstrating the game, let the class play it in groups of around ten. Start the game with a sentence like: (TIẾNG ANH 6, Unit 11, A 4) ‘I need some eggs.’ The first student repeats this sentence, adding an item of their own: ‘I need some eggs and some rice.’ The teacher does not repeat these sentences. Each student adds something until no one can add any more without a mistake. For older students the items can be more complex: ‘I need some eggs, some rice, a bottle of cooking oil and half a kilo of beef.’ This activity tests both listening and memory. In order to give an added incentive to the students to improve, the teacher can make a student who gets it wrong drop out for one round and come in again later. Adapt this activity for: -Near future -Conditionals 1, 2 and 3 -Lexical sets Dialogue Frame The teacher puts a dialogue on the board in cues. The teacher models the dialogue, pointing to each cue in turn. The teacher runs through the cues like a drill with the whole class to make sure they know what to say at each cue. The students practice the dialogue in pairs. Example: You are a tourist to HCMC. You want to visit a market. This is the conversation between you and the tourist officer. (TIÊNG ANH 8, Unit 11, SPEAK) You Tourist officer Excuse me! I’d like to visit a market. Would you mind suggesting me one? That sounds interesting. Thank you. Yes? Not at all. How about going to Ben Thanh Market? It opens from about 5am to 8pm. You‘re welcome. The teacher puts the dialogue chart on the board. The teacher elicits the exchanges from students and asks them to repeat. The teacher asks a pair to demonstrate the dialogue. (open pair) The teacher asks students to work in pairs. (closed pairs) The teacher monitors and corrects. Adapt this activity for: Offers and requests Role Play Role play is a communicative activity in which students talk to each other in different roles. Role play encourages the use of spoken English. Students learn both by repeating the words given to them and by making up their own words to fit the situation. Example: The teacher asks students to play the role of A and B, ask and answer about their partner’s home village in pairs then swap roles. (TIÊNG ANH 9, Unit 3, Speak) A: Where is your home village? B: It’s to the west of the city. A: How far is it from the city? B: It’s about 15 kilometers from the city. A: How can you get there? B: We can get there by bus. A: How long does it take to get there? B: It takes an hour. A: What do people do for a living in your village? B: They plant rice and raise cattle. A: Does your village have a river? B: There aren’t any rivers, but there is a big lake. Interview The teacher asks students to ask and answer about a certain topic in pairs. One student is the interviewer and the other is the interviewee and then they swap roles. Example: Asking and answering about students’ wear (TIÊNG ANH 9, UNIT 2, SPEAK) S1: What do you usually wear on the weekend? S2:................................................................................................ S1: Why do you wear these clothes? S2: ............................................................................................... S1: What is your favorite type of clothing? Why? S2: ................................................................................................ S1: Is it comfortable to wear uniform? S2: ................................................................................................ S1: What color is it? S2:.................................................................................................. S1: What type of clothing do you usually wear on Tet holiday? S2:................................................................................................. S1: What would you like to wear to a party? S2: ................................................................................................ Adapt this activity for: - Daily activities - Holiday plan - Study plan - Future plan - Famous people Discussion The teacher organizes an informal discussion on a topic of interest to the students. The teacher can get students to propose a topic. Example: The effects of the new mall (TIẾNG ANH 8, Unit 7, READ) The teacher asks students to discuss the topic in groups of about 10. One member from each group writes down their friends’ ideas and opinions. After discussion, one representative from each group presents it in front of the class. Possible answers: - To shop under one roof in comfort with air-condition, entertainment (cinema, restaurant and children’s play area) - To have a wider selection of goods at lower prices - Small shop owners are worried about their future. Adapt this activity for: Safety precautions in the street City life and country life The Internet How to minimize pollution Story-telling The teacher should encourage students to tell stories as soon as they have some ability to speak English. It will be difficult at first, but they will soon get used to it. Example: The lost shoe (TIIẾNG ANH 8, Unit 8, READ) The teacher asks students to retell the story in details in front of the class. They can use the statements in the gap-fill exercise and add some more. Suggested answer: Little Pea’s father was a poor farmer. Unfortunately, Little Pea’s mother died when she was very young and her father got married again. The new wife was very cruel and made her work all day. One day, the prince wanted to choose a wife from her village. Her new mother didn’t make new clothes for her, but the fairy did. She came to the festival and lost a shoe. The prince found her shoe and decided to marry her. Adapt this activity for: - Stories students have heard before - Stories they may make up - Things they have seen and done 3.1.4. Summary Conversation is difficult for many students because it involves various skills. While learning to speak a foreign language, the students inevitably make mistakes. Because of these reasons, the teacher should create a relaxed atmosphere, accustom students to speaking in natural interaction, organize pair and group work, and avoid any obsession with accuracy. The teacher should encourage incidental classroom speaking, giving students the expressions they need, and exploit every opportunity for conversation. 3.2. TECHNIQUES FOR TEACHING LISTENING 3.2.1. Introduction It is generally believed that listening is the most important skill for learning to speak a language. When students speak English, they have time to think about what they want to say, and about what words to use. When students listen, they have little control over what they will hear, but in order to communicate they need to understand what is being said to them. Unfortunately in junior high schools, listening is by far the weakest of the skills. When listening is taught, the methods are sometimes not very useful. The teacher can really help their students learn English by actively teaching listening in a communicative way more often in his classes. The teacher can make the course-book or other listening practice more realistic or interesting by following specific stages and using specific techniques. The stages generally recommended are: Pre-listening: This stage is to prepare the students for what they are going to hear. The teacher should not just tell the students to listen and then start the cassette. While-listening: This stage is to help the students understand the text/dialogue. The teacher should not expect them to understand every word. In general, the teacher should help his students understand rather than test their understanding the whole time. Post-listening: This stage is to help the students to connect what they have heard with their own experience. It also allows the teacher to move easily from listening to another language skill. Why is listening so difficult? The listeners have little control or no control over what they will hear. The speakers talk too fast. There are too many new words. Accents are different and difficult to understand. Remember that if the teacher follows the correct procedure for teaching listening the students’ listening skill will definitely improve. There are a few points to remember when using the text/dialogue for listening : 1. The teacher needs to get the students interested in the topic before he plays/reads the text/dialogue. Use flashcards/pictures related to the topic. Ask simple questions about the topic. Chat informally about the topic. 2. The teacher should present some key vocabulary. 3. The teacher must make sure all the students’ books are closed when he plays/reads the text/dialogues. If they are open, it is a useless listening activity. Listening and reading are two different skills. The teacher cannot ask students to read and listen if he wants to improve their listening .This is a common mistake made by teachers. 4. The teacher gives the students one or two general questions about the main points of the text/dialogues before the teacher plays/reads it. This will help them focus on the text/dialogues when they first listen to it. 5. Give the students a task to complete while listening. Break this task up into two parts since listening is hard for students and the text/dialogue in the books are often long. a good listening activity procedure with TIẾNG ANH 8 ,UNIT 7 (p 63) 1. Students CLOSE their books. 2. The teacher introduces the topic: Na has just moved to a new place and Nam is telling her something about their neighborhood. 3. PRESENT VOCABULARY - close by (adv): (explanation) - to serve (v): (definition) - a pancake (n): (translation) - tasty (adj): (synonym) 4. GUIDING QUESTIONS: The teacher asks some guiding questions on the main points of the dialogue. The teacher writes the questions on the board before playing/reading the dialogue. a) How long has Nam lived in that neighborhood? b) Where does Na want to go? 5. LISTENING-PLAY/READ THE WHOLE DIALOGUE The teacher plays/reads the whole dialogue. Students listen and answer the guiding questions. No books are open. Nam: Hi. My name’s Nam. Na : Hello. Nice to meet you, Nam. I’m Na. Nam: Are you new around here? Na : Yes. We’ve been here since last week. Nam: I’m sure you’ll like this neighborhood. Na : I hope so. How long have you lived here? Nam: Oh, we’ve lived here for about 10 years. Na : You must know the area very well. Nam: I do. Na : Is there a restaurant close by? My mother is too tired to cook tonight. Nam: There is one just around the corner. Na : What is the food like? Nam: It’s very good. We like to eat there. It serves Hue food and the pancakes are delicious. You should try them. Na : I will. Thanks. 6. GAP-FILL ACTIVITY The teacher sets students a TASK to complete WHILE listening. In this task students fill in the missing words. The teacher can prepare a flipchart or write it on the board .The teacher can show how many letters each missing word has. E.g. were _ _ _ _, on_ _ a) Na is _ _ _ to the neighborhood. b) She and her family arrived _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. c) Na’s mother is very _ _ _ _ _. d) There is a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in the area. e) The restaurant serves food from _ _ _. f) Nam thinks the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ are tasty. Students do not have to copy down the whole sentences. They should write down the answers ONLY. 7. 1/2 THE TASK The teacher plays/reads half the dialogue. Students listen and write only the answers (a, b, c). The teacher checks the answers. 8. 1/2 THE TASK The teacher repeats the above procedure with d- f. 9. STUDENTS SEE THE DIALOGUE FOR THE FIRST TIME Now students open their books on pages 63-64. (TIENG ANH 8, Unit 7) The teacher plays/reads the dialogue while the students follow in their books. 10. SIMULTANEOUS PAIR WORK ACTIVITY DIALOGUE SUBSTITUTION S1: How long have you lived here? studied English S2: About 10 years. played football The teacher should encourage students to substitute their own answers. SUMMARY OF LISTENING PRACTICE PROCEDURE 1) Students CLOSE their books. 2) The teacher introduces the topic. 3) The teacher presents vocabulary. 4) The teacher gives guiding questions on the main points of the dialogue/text. 5) The teacher plays/reads the whole dialogue/text .Students answer the guiding questions. 6) The teacher gives students a task to complete while listening. 7) The teacher plays/reads 1/2 the dialogue/text. Students answer 1/2 the task. 8) The teacher plays/reads the rest of the dialogue/text and students answer the rest of the questions. 9) Students can open their books and the teacher reads the WHOLE dialogue/text again. 10) Set students some additional listening activities. There are plenty of classroom techniques for improving listening. Here are some of them: 3.2.2. Pre-listening Techniques Guiding Questions The teacher puts a few guiding questions on the board: one guiding question for each main point in the listening text. Students think about the guiding questions. After the first listening they answer the questions. Guiding questions Listening text (TIÊNG ANH 8, Unit 1, LISTEN AND READ) 1. Is Nien Lan’s friend or Hoa’s friend? 2. How old is Nien? 3. Where does Nien live? 4. Is she a beautiful girl? Hoa: Hello, Lan. Lan: Hi, Hoa. You seem happy. Hoa: I am. I received a letter from my friend Nien today. Lan: Do I know her? Hoa: I don’t think so. She was my next-door neighbor in Hue. Lan: What does she look like? Hoa: Oh. She’s beautiful. Here is her photograph. Lan: What a lovely smile! Was she your classmate? Hoa: Oh, no. She wasn’t old enough to be in my class. Lan: How old is she? Hoa: Twelve. She’s going to visit me. She’ll be here at Christmas. Would you like to meet her? Lan: I’d love to. Ordering The teacher gives students jumbled statements, pictures or words on the board. The students’ task is to arrange them in the proper order, or a possible order. Students listen and correct their order. Example: How to play the guessing game (TIÊNG ANH 8, Unit 14, LISTEN & READ) The teacher puts the statements chart on the board. Students put the statements in the right order. Students listen and correct their order. Jumbled statements Order 1. B asks questions to find out who or what is. 2. A thinks of a famous person or place. 3. B wins if s/he can guess the correct answers. 4. A gives B a clue. 5. B loses if s/he cannot guess the correct answers. 6. A can answer ‘yes’ or 'no'. 2-4-1-6-3-5 True-False Statements The teacher writes between 6 and 8 statements on the main ideas in the listening text on the board. Only half the statements are true. In pairs students predict which statements are true and which are wrong. The teacher does not say if they are right or wrong. After the first listening they correct their answers. Example: Nga is talking to Kate about her studying English. (TIÊNG ANH 9, Unit 4, Listen) The teacher asks the students to work in pairs to predict which statements are true and which are false. Statements True False Answer keys 1. Nga’s studying English for her work. ٱ ٱ 2. She learned English at school and university. ٱ ٱ 3. She works for a national bank in Ha Noi. ٱ ٱ 4. She needs to improve her writing. ٱ ٱ 5. Her listening is excellent. ٱ ٱ 6. She hopes she can talk to people from all over the ٱ ٱ world, and understand her favorite English songs. T T F T F T Brainstorm around a Topic The teacher asks students to suggest words associated with a topic. The teacher writes the topic in the middle of the board and as students call out words, s/he writes their words with a line connecting them to the central word. Example: Get students to suggest words about ‘city life’. (TIÊNG ANH 8, Unit 8, LISTEN & READ) City life Possible an

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