Social integration of workers in industry (case study of thang long – Ha Noi industrial zone)

Regarding gender: Workers in Thang Long Industrial Park - Hanoi are

mainly female, accounting for 72.4%, while the remaining male workers

account for 27.6% only. This structure also partly shows the general

situation in industrial parks in Hanoi at present (with the majority of

workers are female accounting for 70% or more).

About ethnic group and religion: Data show that most of them are

Kinh without religion but worship their ancestors; Only 8.7% of workers

are ethnic minorities and the rest 91.3% are Kinh; 15.0% are Buddhist;

3.9% Christian; 1.3% follow other religions; and 79.8% do not follow the

religion but worship ancestors

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ON SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF WORKERS 1.1. HORIZONTAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION RESEARCH DIRECTIONS (INTERPERSONAL LEVEL) In general, from the 1950s up to now, domestic sociologists and abroad have studied social integration in many aspects: Labor relations, social solidarity and social relations, etc. From the 1950s to the 1980s, sociologists engaged in the research works on cross-social integration between individuals/ groups of workers as a phenomenon of cultural identity. Recent research works even though do not directly examine social integration among workers, but via their analyses the authors clarified certain aspects of both theory and actual situation of social integration 7 between individuals and individuals with social organizations. Social integration in general (such as civil society organizations) or group-level social integration between workers and groups of workers in particular are one of the forms of group-level social integration. This integration greatly influences the productivity of the group. The relationship between integration and group productivity depends on the standards set by the group. The higher the integration of the group is, the more members observe the group's goals. 1.2. VERTICAL SOCIAL INTEGRATION RESEARCH DIRECTIONS (INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL) Since entering the period of social industrialization and modernization, many sociologists have argued that, in terms of macroeconomics, vertical social integration, i.e., integration of individuals with the value and ideology systems, etc., are increasingly weakened. The first cause of the decline of social integration at the ideological and structural level is the aggregation in a wide space of distinct social groups. At the structural and institutional level, when discussing social integration, sociologists around the world often classify it into one of three types of exchange logics: (1) market exchange logic; (2) State - employee exchange logic and (3) gift logic, i.e. emotional logic. Among research works on the role of social integration in maintenance and development of enterprises at the micro and meso levels, research by Mark Granovetter is a typical one. The author is one of the most influential scientists in social network and social capital researchers. His research scope is often associated with economic sociology. In particular, directions of micro and meso research on social integration are rarely or never implemented. This is the gap for the dissertation to focus on exploiting in order to introduce a new sociologically theoretical and empirical approach to current social integration of workers in industrial parks. 8 Chapter 2 RATIONALE OF WORKERS' SOCIAL INTEGRATION 2.1. CONCEPTS 2.1.1. Social integration and Social integration of workers in Industrial Parks (French: Lien social) The dissertation gives the following definition for the research: Social integration between workers in industrial parks is the form of social relationship in labor that attaches individuals or groups of workers to each other and engages the entire workforce with the enterprises where they work. Social integration between workers in the industrial parks is a coherent, horizontal and vertical social relationship that allows each workers to assert his or her identity and perform his/her works in a professional manner. These are social indicators that contribute to assessing the competitive advantage and sustainable development of the industrial parks. 2.1.2. Social relationships From the concept of social relationships, the author proposed the following definition of social relationships for her research: Social relationships are relationships and interactions between individuals and individuals, between individuals and social groups, between social groups and between social groups and between individuals and society as a whole. 2.1.3. Industrial relations Industrial relations in general are the processes of economic exchange and social conflict between capital and labor (in an enterprise, an economy sector or a country) as well as standards, contracts or institutions of organization (trade unions and organizations of the employers), groups and individuals of both sides as well as of the state level. 2.1.4. Institutions and enterprises "Institution means a set of social forms and social structures organized and constituted by laws or by customs". In this research, 9 corporate institutions are considered in relation to the standards of workers. On that basis, the author finds out whether such relationship is harmonious and tight or not. 2.1.5. Social groups "A group is a collection of few or many people with similar social characteristics". Applying these definitions to the research, the author identifies workers in Thang Long Industrial Park as an attribute group because they share many similar characteristics. 2.1.6. Laborer From the views on workers and the characteristics of the working class, the author proposes the following definition: Workers are those salaried under the labor contracts to produce products, goods and services in various economic sectors in order to receive compensation from corporate leaders in various forms, of which salary is the basic form. Workers in this definition are synonymous with salaried workers. 2.1.7. Industrial parks "An industrial park is a park specializing in producing industrial goods and providing services for industrial production with definite geographical boundaries". Thus, an industrial park is a complex of industrial enterprises built in a region with favorable conditions on natural factors and social infrastructure, etc. to attract investment capital (mainly with foreign investment) and operated under a proper structure with industrial enterprises and service enterprises to achieve high results in industrial production and business. 2.2. THEORIES 2.2.1. Emile Durkheim's Theory of Social Solidarity Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) used social solidarity to refer to the relationships between individuals/ groups of workers and the relationships between workers and enterprises as a whole and the society as a whole. 10 His concept of social solidarity is closely related to the concept of social integration used currently. The dissertation applies social solidarity theory of Emile Durkheim (1858-1917). Through measurement and evaluation of horizontal social integration between workers/ groups of workers in Thang Long Industrial Park and the vertical social integration between them and their employers, the author of the dissertation wants to check whether which social integrations are expressed more strongly and tightly. Besides, how horizontal social integration is harmonious with vertical social integration? Does the horizontal social integration of workers in this Industrial park affect their professionalization and modernization? 2.2.2. Social network theory by Mark Granovetter Mark Granovetter (1943) is an American sociologist known for his research on social capital, social networks and economic sociology. According to him, when conducting network analysis, the researchers are required to distinguish (strong/ weak) relationships within the network by criteria. Adapting precedent research works, the author mapped the analysis framework for social integration of workers in Thang Long Industrial Park. 2.3. MARXISM-LENINISM, HO CHI MINH'S IDEOLOGY, THE COMMUNIST PARTY AND STATE OF VIETNAM VIEWPOINTS ON SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF WORKERS 2.3.1. Marxism-Leninism and Social integration of workers 2.3.1.1. K. Marx and Friedrich Engels From the characteristics of the working class as the proletarian class, Marx and Engels particularly emphasized the employee solidarity in movements and activities from production to revolutionary activities. . Employee solidarity was considered as a red thread throughout the struggle and development of workers in the history of development. 11 2.3.1.2. V. I. Lenin Continuing the viewpoint of Marx and Engels on employee solidarity, Lenin further developed this solidarity in his arguments. Lenin analyzed the socialization of workers in the process of working. This is especially important when researching Vietnamese workers. Most Vietnamese workers originate from peasants or other occupations, which is a process of employee socialization of particular importance. Ideological solidarity is a particular concern of Lenin. It also emerged from long-term, thoughtful and thorough education of political organizations for working-class. Through Lenin's arguments and views on employee solidarity in practice, the author applied in his research the employee solidarity in production and in everyday life. In addition, the author mentions the role of the Union as an organization that educates workers in theoretical, thinking and legal aspects so that workers can work more united in their common movements. 2.3.2. Ho Chi Minh ideology, the Communist Party and Govern of Vietnam and Social integration of workers 2.3.2.1. Ho Chi Minh Ideology President Ho Chi Minh applied the Marxism-Leninism doctrine to the specific conditions of Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh emphasized that: "It is necessary to actively build solidarity and mutual assistance among organizations and industries, especially between the Trade Union, Directors and the Youth Union. It is required to prevent the thought of being waiting, reliant and local. There must be a plan to foster eminent heroes and combatants to promote their model role and commander role. For intellectual workers and scientists, the trade union must have a plan to help them keep improving and working closely together." Thus, the thought of Ho Chi Minh forms a basis for the author to conduct research on the integration of workers in factories. The integration 12 is not only for interests but also for class and spirit of those who share the same spirit of the proletariat. Workers always uphold their spirit of work and a positive nucleus in social development. 2.3.2.2. the Communist Party and State of Socialist Republic of Vietnam The Party always affirms the position and essential role of workers and working class in the revolutionary cause of Vietnam. "Building working class and trade unions is a central task for the whole Communist Party in the new period of development, because only a politically mature working class with high professional knowledge and skills can be the core to alliances with peasants, intellectuals, gathering and uniting other components and striving for the success of industrialization and modernization". This correct and scientific methodology enables research works on workers and working class in Vietnam in general and research works on social integration of workers in industrial parks in particular to have a systematic, dialectic and logical view about the history, position and role of workers in industrial parks and the importance of workers' social integration in stability and development to industrial parks; contributing to the development of industrialization and modernization of Vietnam in the coming years. Summary of Chapter 2 The concepts of social integration, social relationships, workers, industrial parks and social integration of workers in industrial parks are clarified in terms of content and form to form the basis for applying social integration of workers in the enterprises within industrial parks nowadays. Utilizing E. Durkheim's social solidarity theory and Mark Granovetter's social network theory will provide more bases for analysis 13 and evaluation in conducting research on social integration of workers in enterprises within industrial parks. During the process of leading the revolution, the Communist Party of Vietnam has always highly appreciated the essential importance the working class, the theory of Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh's ideology on workers and the working class in building and developing the country. Therefore, the viewpoints of the Party, the State and Marxism-Leninism, Ho Chi Minh's thought are always affirmed as invariable in building social integration of workers in enterprises within industrial parks. Chapter 3 ACTUAL SITUATION OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF WORKERS IN INDUSTRIAL PARKS 3.1. GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND RESEARCH SAMPLES 3.1.1. Overview on Thang Long Industrial Park - Hanoi The research was conducted in Thang Long Industrial Park - Hanoi. Thang Long Industrial Park is considered the largest and most successful industrial park in the North of Vietnam. Thang Long Industrial Park was developed by Japan's Sumitomo Corporation and Dong Anh Mechanics Company (Ministry of Construction) under the Investment License No. 1845/ GP issued by the Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam on February 22, 1997. Thang Long Industrial Park is considered by the investors as an ideal location with 59,032 workers. There are 85 investors in this industrial park including 67 manufacturing plants and the remaining ones are offices. The companies investing in this industrial park are mainly export producers. 3.1.2. Demographic and social characteristics of research sample About working age and seniority: Workers in this park are of very young age. The oldest person was born in 1977 (39 years old) and the youngest one was born in 1998 (18 years old). Of which, workers aged 18 14 to under 25 accounted for the highest proportion, with 40.9%, those aged between 25 and 29 accounted for 39.1% and those aged over 30 accounted for the lowest proportion with 19.9% . These age ranges of workers are also consistent with their response to working seniority at Thang Long Industrial Park - Hanoi. Because regarding three levels of seniority assessment for workers, the percentage of workers with seniority of 6 years and more; between 3 and 5 years and 1 to 2 years accounted for 27.3%, 31.0% and 41.7% respectively. Regarding gender: Workers in Thang Long Industrial Park - Hanoi are mainly female, accounting for 72.4%, while the remaining male workers account for 27.6% only. This structure also partly shows the general situation in industrial parks in Hanoi at present (with the majority of workers are female accounting for 70% or more). About ethnic group and religion: Data show that most of them are Kinh without religion but worship their ancestors; Only 8.7% of workers are ethnic minorities and the rest 91.3% are Kinh; 15.0% are Buddhist; 3.9% Christian; 1.3% follow other religions; and 79.8% do not follow the religion but worship ancestors. Regarding education and training level: Survey data indicate that only 1.3% workers are at primary education; 10.0% with secondary school education and 88.7% with high school education. The proportion of workers not attending any vocational training occupies the highest rate, with 41.2%; Followed by vocational training in enterprises, with 26.5%; Intermediate level is 15.5% and Vocational College is 16.8%. Regarding job title at the enterprises and labor contracts: Most of the workers are directly engaged in production, with 81.6%; only 8.9% participate in service activities, 5.2% are office workers and 4.2% doing other works. With these job titles, 44.1% of respondents are currently working under contracts with a term of one to less than three years; 34.9% with indefinite contracts; workers with seasonal contracts with a term of 15 fewer than 12 months are 13.9%; In particular, there are still 7.1% of workers working without labor contracts. Regarding members of political and social organizations: The percentage of workers participating in the Youth Union is highest, with 53.8%; 38.1% are union members; 4.1% are members of the Communist Party and 3.8% join other social organizations. These characteristics show a rich and varied picture of workers in industrial parks nowadays. 3.2. ACTUAL SITUATION OF WORKERS' SOCIAL INTEGRATION 3.2.1. Interpersonal social integration Interpersonal social integration is expressed in the exchange and sharing between workers in areas such as work experience, information on labor laws, corporate policies and mechanisms, issues related to workers' health and living skills in the corporate working environment. Total exchange score between the old workers and new workers is 3.1549 points. Exchanges between groups of old workers and new workers are valued on a regular basis with an average value of 3, 1549 showing a relatively close relationship between old and new workers. This relationship shows the desire to share and help the groups in life as well as at work. In the interpersonal social integration, the highest mean score found was among compatriot groups (3.26), followed by same production groups (3.22) and same accommodation groups (3.13); mean score in same interest group is 2.86, same age group is 2.68 and other groups is 2.82. However, all the mean scores in these groups were either moderate or fairly close; particularly for same income groups and same religion groups, the mean score is 2.63 corresponding to the lowest level of attachment. The results by Likert scale of the degree of attachment in groups of workers show medium level only with a mean value of 2.9165. By ANOVA comparison of independent variable groups, it is shown that the elements including Age; Gender; Education and Labor contracts have a statistically significant difference between independent variable 16 groups. For example the age group of <25 years has a higher degree of attachment is higher than the age group of 25, male workers have a higher degree of attachment than female workers, tertiary education group has higher attachment than other education level groups, direct workers have a higher degree of attachment than indirect workers, those who are peasants before working for the enterprises has higher attachment than others. 3.2.3. Institutional social integration Institutional social integration is expressed through the integration between organizations, enterprises with workers, groups of workers or the concern and assistance of organizations and enterprises with workers, groups of workers and vice versa. Social integration between workers and their direct production team leaders has a mean score of 3.15 points and is stronger than that of workers and trade unions at 2.90 points. Every time they get sick, or suffer from difficulties in life and at work in addition to the intimate help from interpersonal social integration, workers always receive help from corporate leaders. First of all, production team leaders are those often help their workers with 2.99 points for the relationship, followed by 2.38 points of trade unions and 2.35 points of corporate leaders. Summary of Chapter 3 By analysis and evaluation of social integration of workers in the industrial parks, it is found that: The social integration of workers in enterprises within industrial parks is expressed at several levels and through each specific indicator; each level of social integration reflects different degrees of attachment: The integration between workers/ groups of workers is quite strong meanwhile the integration between workers and enterprises is not. This confirms the hypothesis: The social integration of workers in the industrial parks between workers and between groups of workers is quite strong, but that between workers and corporate institutions is loose. 17 Chapter 4 INFLUENCING FACTORS INFLUENCINGAND SOLUTIONS TO SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF WORKERS IN INDUSTRIAL PARKS 4.1. FACTORS INFLUENCING SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF WORKERS 4.1.1. Factors influencing interpersonal integration of workers Analysis results show the factors influencing interpersonal integration of workers expressed through standardized beta coefficients in the regression model. The higher the beta coefficient is, the more greatly it affects the interpersonal integration of workers. Socio-demographics include: Education (0.152), Labor Contracts (0.176), Labor awareness includes: Preventing negative situations in the enterprises (0.073). Regularly improving skills (.174) Corporate policies and mechanisms include the following factors: Level of organizing collective activities, recreation, entertainment or sightseeing, corporate union holidays (.107), Social policies: Assurance of stable employment for workers (0.116), Attention to low-income workers (0.101), Employer's attention to workers (0.199), Implementation of corporate policies (.100) Therefore, the analysis shows that: Trade union and corporate policies and mechanisms are still more influential than individual factors in the current interpersonal social integration. The analysis shows that the role of trade union is not only to connect workers with employers but also improve the degree of attachment between workers through their activities creating more conditions for workers to unite together in the production process to increase labor productivity. 4.1.2. Factors Influencing Institutional integration of Workers The regression analysis reveals clearly the factors influencing vertical integration include the integration between workers and production team leaders, trade union, enterprise managers. 18 Among the demographic factors, there are only three factors with standardized beta coefficients that show their importance to institutional integration of workers including workplace (-0.121), labor contract (0.013) and trade union membership (0.096). As such, the analysis shows that the role of trade union is not only to connect workers with employers but also improve the degree of attachment between workers through their activities creating more conditions for workers to unite together in the production process to increase labor productivity. At the same time, the activities of trade union contributed positively to improving the integration between workers and enterprises at the institutional level. One of the most important factors influencing employee attachment at the institutional level is "labor awareness" with a Beta coefficient of 0.106. It is followed by factors related to corporate policy including monthly salary (.076), Non-salary allowances (.090), level of organizing collective activities, recreation, entertainment or sightseeing, corporate union holidays (. 160), Social policies: Attention to low-income workers (.178), Employer's attention to workers (.298) and current expectations of workers (.156). Thus, employers evaluate employer's attention to workers as the factor with the strongest influence on institutional integration of workers corresponding to beta coefficient of 0.398 with a relatively strong correlation between factors. R2 adjusted coefficient is 0.289 indicating that the inputs can account for 28.9% variation in degree of attachment and other factors. Through a comparative analysis of factors influencing institutional integration of workers, it shows that policies and mechanisms have stronger impact than those of the socio-demographic factors. As a result, in order to enhance working spirit and degree of attachment of workers with the enterprises, enterprise managers should pay more attention to the needs of their workers thereby stimulating their working spirit. 19 4.2. SOME EMERGING ISSUES AND RECOMMENDED SOLUTIONS TO SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF WORKERS IN INDUSTRIAL PARKS 4.2.1. Some emerging issues related to social integration of workers in industrial parks Identifying the social relationships of workers is not easy for corporate leaders or managers. In fact, workers working in enterprises within Thang Long Industrial Park have diverse relationships, from social relationships with corporate leaders or managers to social relationships in the same production team, different production teams, neighborhood, age, hobbies, religion, and homeland, etc., Social integration of workers has a certain dominance of their employment, exchanges, sharing and mutual help at work. This affects the motivation of workers at work, labor productivity and thus reducing the social integration between workers and enterprises. 4.2.2. Recommended solutions to social integration of workers in industrial parks - Focus on arranging work suitable with personal characteristics and lifestyles of workers. Pay attention to social relati

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