Sustainable livelihoods of the inhabitans in the buffer zone of Phong Nha – Ke Bang national park, Quang Binh

The thesis has measured the sustainability of livelihoods by the index method on a basis of 4 groups of criteria, showing that the livelihood of the buffer zone is not really sustainable (0.472) and in the range of being "slightly sustainable ”[26]. Most the criteria have indicators below 0.6, of which the lowest index is the economic criterion and the environmental criterion. The level of sustainability of livelihoods is varied between the poor, near-poor households and households escaping from poverty in particular: the sustainable livelihood index of the medium-good group (HSLI), the near-poor group and the poor group are 0.536, below 0.5 (0.459) and below 0.4 (0.398), respectively. In general, most households in the buffer zone have a sustainable livelihood index ranging from "moderately sustainable" to "fairly sustainable", with the average number of better-off people achieving with a higher livelihood index than the other groups. Noticeably, not any households with high living standards (average - fair) have higher indexes than the poor and near-poor, but this indicator also depends on the characteristics of each livelihood activity that the household participates in and other indicators reflecting the sustainable livelihoods of each household.

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nclude capacities, resources (reserves, resources, rights to be protected and access) and necessary activities as a means of life for human beings" [44]. Frank Ellis (2000), specifies a livelihood that includes assets (natural, physical means, people, finance and social capital), activities and access to these assets (institutions and social relations), all of which determine the life the individual or household receives [48]. Scoones (1998) and the UK Development Agency (DFID, 2001) offer a view of livelihoods including capabilities, assets (both physical and social resources) and activities required. as means of life for people [46], [83]. In short, livelihoods are essential activities that an individual or a household must undertake to sustain life and ensure living needs based on their own livelihood capabilities and resources. Perspectives on sustainable livelihoods The concept of "Sustainable development" appeared in the movement "Environment protection" from the early 70s of the twentieth century, since then there have been many definitions of sustainable development such as “a healthy socio-economic development, based on the proper use of resources and environmental protection, in order to meet current needs without adversely affecting the future generation”. According to Tran Ngoc Ngoan (2008), sustainable development is a development that satisfies the needs of the present without harming the ability to satisfy the needs of future generations ”[23]. Chambers and Conway (1992) argue that “a livelihood is said to be sustainable where it can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks, maintain or enhance the capacity of assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for next generations; distribution of benefits at the local and community levels in the short and long term” [44]. Scoones (1998), the concept of sustainable livelihoods is basically the same as the above statement but emphasizes the sustainability of natural resources, which is related to the implementation of livelihood strategies of rural communities [ 83]. According to Pramod K. Singh, B.N. Hiremath (2010), the concept of sustainable livelihoods security (SLS) has a broader scope and common meaning, including the current concerns and policies required related to sustainable development (SD). Swaminathan (1991a, b) defines sustainable livelihood security as eco-safe livelihood options, fair social and economic efficiency: ecological, economical, and size of equity [78]. Hanstad et al. (2004) explains “A livelihood is considered sustainable when it is resilient and resilient to impacts, or can promote possibilities and assets at present and in the future while not undermining the foundation of natural resources ”[52]. Koos Neefjes (2000) argues that sustainable livelihoods are “A livelihood must depend on abilities and wealth (both physical and social resources) and activities that are all necessary to born. The livelihood of a person or a family is sustainable when they can cope with and recover from stresses and tremors, and survive or enhance their abilities and possessions and in the future. without harming environmental resources ”[71]. Thus, we can understand that sustainable livelihoods are the use of resources necessary to implement livelihood strategies in order to achieve desired results. At the household level, that livelihood is considered sustainable when it is able to maintain a stable level of income and have little impact on environmental, economic and social factors. Livelihood resources include: (1) Human capital (resources); (2) Physical capital; (3) Natural capital; (4) financial capital; (5) Social capital. Livelihood resources closely relate to a direct role and impact on livelihood strategies, livelihood outcomes and livelihood goals. 2.1.1.2. Analytical framework for sustainable livelihoods 2.1.1.3. Criteria assessment of sustainable livelihood 2.1.2. Sustainable livelihood index 2.1.3. Buffer zones, national parks and buffer zones of national parks 2.1.3.1. Concept, characteristics and beneficial roles of a buffer zone 2.1.3.2. National Park 2.1.3.3. Buffer zone of the National Park The concept of a buffer zone for a national park according to Decision No. 186/2006 / QD-TTg dated August 14, 2006 in Article 24, Clause 2, Clause 3 and Clause 4 specifies the buffer zone of the national park, Conservation is: “The buffer zone of a national park is an area of ​​forest, land or water-surface land adjacent to the national park and nature reserve; includes all or a part of communes, wards and townships lying close to the border with the national park and nature reserve; The buffer zone was established to prevent and mitigate the human invasion of the national park and nature reserve; The buffer zone area is not included in the area of ​​the special-use forest; People's committees at all levels and forest owners are responsible for conservation propaganda and economic development in the buffer zone. From the above concepts, it can be said that the buffer zone of the National Park is a residential community consisting of all households and individuals living in the same villages, village, hamlet, village, phum, squirrel or equivalent unit. 2.1.3.4. Residents in the buffer zone of the National Park According to Circular 23/2012 / TT-BCA specified in Chapter 1, Article 3, Clause 1 of the Ministry of Public Security, residential area is defined as “the gathering place of people, households concentrated residence within a certain area, including: villages, hamlets, residential group and equivalent population unit.” From the above points of view, it can be understood that residents are households residing in the locality that have a strong relationship with the customs and practices where they live and are influenced by living policies. 2.1.4. Factors affecting the sustainable livelihoods of residents in the buffer zone of the National Park 2.2. Practical basis 2.2.1. Experience in sustainable livelihood development of people in the buffer zone of the National Park in the world and in Vietnam 2.2.2. Lessons for Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park Buffer Zone CHAPTER 3: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RESEARCH SITES AND RESEARCH METHODS 3.1. Characteristics of research sites 3.1.1. Natural condition 3.1.2. Social and economic conditions 3.2. Research Methods 3.2.1. Approach and analytical framework 3.2.2. Methods of data and information collection 3.2.1.1. Secondary data - Secondary information includes those from Department of Statistics, Phong Nha Ke Bang Project Management Board, PNKB National Park Management Board, Quang Binh Forestry Department, People's Committee of 13 buffer zone communes, Bo Trach District People's Committee, Minh Hoa District People's Committee, aggregated data of the agricultural, rural, and housing censuses, in 2016, and 2017. - Information from conferences, seminars on sustainable development, sustainable livelihoods at home and abroad, the national library, the library of University of Economics, Hue University ... Master thesis, Phd. thesis, books, magazines, reports, development planning reports at home country and abroad and specialized websites. This information is mainly used to research systematic issues and generalize the current state of sustainable livelihoods; and analysing natural features, socio-economic conditions; infrastructure, human resources, material, population size; policies and institutions; resources and factors affecting the implementation of livelihoods. 3.2.2.2. Collect primary data - The primary data is collected from surveying basic information about socio-economic situation, land, living standards, information on household types, including: list of household groups, income per capita, typical livelihood activities, investment support programs and projects; expert opinions on evaluating and rating criteria of sustainable livelihoods according to 3 groups of poor, near poor, average - good households. - Besides, investigating and interviewing the current situation of livelihood resources, livelihood strategies and results of livelihood activities, indicators to measure the sustainability of livelihoods are also done to get the data. * Foundation of sample selection - The sample of the study will be the livelihoods of the buffer zone households selected by the random stratification sampling method, based on sample selection: - It is based on population distribution, ethnic groups, which have conditions and corresponding resources to survey - Based on the level of impact on the National Park: low, medium and high impact. - It is based on the strategy and planning for livelihood development in the buffer zone: tourism development; development of agro-forestry production models. * Select a sample of research households - Basing on the above characteristics, 5 localities were chosen to study, including Son Trach commune (Phong Nha town), Xuan Trach, Trung Hoa, Dan Hoa, Thuong Hoa, the total number of households in 5 communes in the buffer zone is 7736 households with 28917 people. - Using the sampling method based on Slovin's formula (1960), we get: 7736 households / (1 + Ne2) = 7736 / (1 + 7736 * 6% = 270 households (e is the random error is usually less than 10) %). To prevent errors in the research process, more than 22% of selected households were surveyed, ie 270 * 22% = 59.4 households, so the total households selected for the survey are: 270 + 60 = 330 households. 3.2.3. Method of analyzing data and information 3.2.3.1. Descriptive statistics method 3.2.3.2. Partitioning method 3.2.3.3. Method of comparison and contrast 3.2.3.4. Maps, diagrams 3.2.3.5. Professional solution 3.2.3.6. Index analysis method HSLI = 4Ik*Ix*Im*It (7) Index criteria (Ij): + Economic criteria index: Ik = i=110(wki*M'(di)) = w1*M'd1+w2*M'd2+w3*M'd3+w4*M'd4+ w5*M'd5+ w6*M'd6+ w7*M'd7+ w8*M'd8+w9*M'd9+ w10*M'd10. + Social criteria index: Ix = i=19(wxi*M'(di))=w1*M'd1+w2*M'd2+w3*M'd3+w4*M'd4+ w5*M'd5+ w6*M'd6+ w7*M'd7+ w8*M'd8+w9*M'd9. + Environmental criteria index : Im = i=17(wmi*M'(di))=w1*M'd1+w2*M'd2+w3*M'd3+w4*M'd4+ w5*M'd5+ w6*M'd6+ w7*M'd7. + Institutional and policy criteria index : It = i=17(wti*M'(di))=w1*M'd1+w2*M'd2+w3*M'd3+w4*M'd4+ w5*M'd5+ w6*M'd6+ w7*M'd7. - The weight of each indicator (wi) is calculated according to Equation 9. - Target value i: M '(di) is the average value of 330 observations after being standardized in formula 1 and formula 2. - The index scale is based on the studies of Kumar Roslina (2014) and the scale of Nguyen Minh Thu (2013) 3.3. System of research target 3.3.1. Target system of livelihood resources. 3.3.2. Target system to measure sustainable livelihoods CHAPTER 4 SITUATION OF SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS OF RESIDENTS IN THE BUFFER ZONE OF PHONG NHA - KE BANG NATIONAL PARK, QUANG BINH 4.1. Situation of basic resources affecting buffer zone livelihood development of residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park 4.1.1. Infrastructure and physical facilities of the buffer zone of Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park 4.1.2. Situation of production of PNKB buffer zone National Park 4.1.3. Situation of environmental sanitation of people in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park In general, the livelihood development resources of the buffer zone have improved a lot, especially there are many medical stations, commune people's committees, schools. 10% of communes have lighting systems. the area has been equipped with propaganda facilities, working computers ... The standards of living have improved, which helps reduce poor households, increase income per capita. However, the system of solid canals is still low. There are net many community houses at the commune level, waste collection points, and a shortage of clean water in many communes ... 4.1.4. Implementing programs and policies for livelihoods of the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park 4.1.5. Some other natural resources 4.2. Assessment of livelihood resources, livelihood strategy, livelihood results of residents in the buffer zone of PNKB National Park, Quang Binh 4.2.1. General information about households in the buffer zone 4.2.2. The status of livelihood resources of residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park 4.2.3. General evaluation of the implementation of livelihood activities Table 4.20. Results of livelihood activities Types Plants, animals Income (million dong/year) Very poor Poor Average Buffer zone 1. Cultivattion Rice, corns, cassava, beans 6,2 10,03 18,0 11,4 2. Breed Buffalo, cow, pig, goat, chickens, 2,5 4,0 7,0 4,50 3. Plantations Rubber, melaleuca 6,3 7,0 12,0 8,43 4. Garden Pepper, fruit trees, medical plants 1,0 2,5 5,0 2,83 5. Natural economy Honey, rattan, bamboo shoots, conical leaves, forest fruits and vegetables 0,5 1,5 - 1,00 6. Aquaculture Carp, sesame, shrimp 0 0 16,6 5,53 7. Nonagriculture Restaurant services, selling, porting, sailing, 7,52 10,5 18,68 12,23 Public and private organizations 7,4 10,6 11,97 9,99 Source: Household survey data 4.3. Assessment of the livelihood sustainability level of residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park 4.3.1. Sustainable livelihood index of households in the buffer zone Table 4.23. The index reflecting the measure of sustainable livelihoods Group Economic index (Ikt) Social index (Ixh) Environmental index (Imt) Institutional index (Itc) General index Poor 0,336 0,462 0,326 0,498 0,398 Near poor 0,379 0,492 0,438 0,517 0,459 Average 0,526 0,624 0,512 0,50 0,536 The entire buffer area 0,374 0,495 0,449 0,546 0,472 Source: Processing survey data Excel, SPSS. The sustainable livelihood index of the buffer zone is 0.472, within the range [0.4; 0.6], which is considered somewhat sustainable (Nguyen Minh Thu, 2013); Sustainable livelihood index is below 0.5, which is unsustainable (Roslina & Cs, 2014) 4.3.2. Index measuring sustainable livelihoods by livelihood activities Table 4.24. The index reflecting the measure of sustainable livelihoods Group Economic index (Ikt) Social index (Ixh) Environmental index (Imt) Institutional index (Itc) General index Agriculture 0,33 0,54 0,407 0,541 0,444 Forestry 0,294 0,525 0,428 0,532 0,433 Aquaculture 0,402 0,63 0,503 0,619 0,53 Services 0,43 0,595 0,477 0,525 0,50 Nonagricultural activities 0,40 0,40 0,39 0,40 0,40 Source: Processing survey data Excel, SPSS. The results show that, indicators of service activity and fisheries greater than 0.5 are more sustainable than other livelihood strategies. 4.3.3. Index measuring sustainable livelihoods by households The proportion of households with a sustainable livelihood index of 0.5 or more accounts for 36.97%, in which the index of the group of economic and environmental criteria from 0.5 or more accounts for just over 30%. The number of households accoding to two groups of criteria with high indexes are social, institutional and policy of over 60% of households. In general according to, the indicator measuring the level of sustainable livelihoods, the number of households with the index of 0.5 or higher is relatively low, this also shows that the livelihood of people in the buffer zone is not really sustainable [50]. 4.3.4. The relationship between the livelihood diversification strategy and the sustainable livelihood indicators The results show that, households with diversified livelihoods have higher sustainability indicators than those with less diversified livelihoods. 4.4. Some limitations in sustainable livelihood activities of buffer zone residents and causes 4.4.1. Some limitations 4.4.2. Reasons CHAPTER 5 ORIENTATION AND SOLUTIONS FOR SUSTAINABLE BIODIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT FOR COMMUNITIES IN PHONG NHA - KE BANG NATIONAL PARK, QUANG BINH 5.1. Strategies for sustainable livelihood development for residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh 5.1.1. Background for the implementation of sustainable livelihood enhancement in the buffer zone of PNKB National Park, Quang Binh 5.1.2. Sustainable livelihood development aims and targets for residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh 5.1.3. Strategies for enhancing sustainable livelihoods for households in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh 5.2. Some solutions to enhance sustainable livelihoods for residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh 5.2.1. Solutions of completing the socio – economic development planning in the buffer zone to create a premise of promoting sustainable livelihoods for residents in the buffer zone. 5.2.1.1. Developing economic resources in the buffer zone associated with conservation goals Developing livelihoods according to spatial planning: (1) In mountainous and midland areas, rubber, peanuts, pepper, rice, maize, and cassava should be developed; cattle and pig breeding, afforestation; developing industry, handicrafts and tourism services need to be strengthened; (2) In upland and boundary areas: developing maize, rubber, groundnut and cassava; raising livestock and poultry, afforestation, trade, services should be encouraged; (3) The inner buffer zone: stabilizing the area of food crops, controlling land, well-implementing the sedentary work, and increasing the scale of husbandry should be carried out. 5.2.1.2. Developing social resources in the buffer zone synchronously, step by step, civilized and sustainably It is necessary to carry out population and family planning policies effectively, promote job, increase the effectiveness of local training programs, and provide technical advice. Launching good propaganda movements, raising awareness of laws, market policy and other social services should be maintained. Propagating the work of forest protection, biodiversity conservation, seriously implementing the civilized lifestyle convention committed between the people and the local government should be encouraged. In addition, it is important to promote the development of new rural programs in communes according to Directive No: 36 / CT-TTg of the Government in 2016: “Promoting the effective and sustainable implementation of the national target program on building a new countryside in the 2016-2020 period". 5.2.1.3. Exploiting, protecting and developing the environment in a reasonable and safe manner Reducing the environmental impact of exploiting resources on production; increasing efficiency in management and use of resources; increasing application of measures for the safe use of agricultural materials should be promoted. Encouraging the increased investment in water filtration tanks, clean waterworks, and proper waste treatment according to regulations need to be strengthened. 5.2.1.4. Implementing a dynamic and highly effective institutional policy Policy enforcement solutions: It is crucial to make good use of production support policies to improve 7,011.31 hectares of unused bare land and put it into production, of which 5,812.58 hectares of flat land and mountainous land suitable for development of industrial trees and forestry and to implement policies on supporting breeding breeds and contracting forest care and protection as well as agricultural tax exemption and reduction and forestry land allocation policies. Institutional enforcement solution: It is crucial to take good forest protection and heritage protection by strengthening the responsibility of decentralizing local management from 3 laterals including people, communities and authorities (forest owners, forest protection group, forest protection unit). Close supervision of the implementation of the regulations of the villages and communes in the buffer zone should also be encouraged. 5.2.2. Group of solutions to promote and use effectively livelihood resources of residents in the buffer zone of PNKB National Park, Quang Binh Human resources: Support for training and standardization of 16.7% of unqualified communal officials to increase their management capacity, especially managers, female officials who belong to ethnic minorities needs to be done, together with continuing to implementing the policy of supporting teachers in highland and extremely disadvantaged areas. - Social resources: To deal with 4000 labours in the buffer zone by 2020, it is necessary to attract local labourers to participate in non-agricultural livelihood activities, and at the same time increase support for labour export. In addition, using well the supporting capital of the programs, pay fully and in accordance with the regulations for policy beneficiaries should be focused on. - Financial resources: It is essential to strengthen the implementation of credit policies to support production loans, support interest rates of over 5 million VND / poor household, favorable loans of over 60 million for households that can expand production, increase the scale of afforestation and the number of large aquaculture households or for business services households. - Physical resources: Attracting infrastructure investment for the buffer zone, especially key projects, increasing capital to support capital construction, giving priority to schools, traffic, medical centers, canals, means of communication should be carried out, at the same time well-implementing sedentary programs, and temporary houses removal programs. - Natural resources: Implementing propagation, raising awareness of environmental protection, encouraging exploitation towards conservation, strengthening the management and control of regional licensed NTFP exploitation areas are some of the solutions; It is important to change the land use purpose suitable to plants, stratifying the crops according to the slope to reduce the phenomenon of soil erosion and washout; at the same time focus on diversification of livelihood activities to reduce the negative impact on natural resources and add more waste collection spots and increase investment in clean water facilities. 5.2.3. Implementing livelihood strategies towards sustainability for residents in the buffer zone of Phong Nha - Ke Bang National Park - Cultivation activities: It is vital to well implement the crop structure transformation according to Decision No. 3367 / QD-BNN-TT dated July 31, 2014, of the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development in the period of 2014 – 2020, encourage land integration and exchange to expand the scale, convert suitable crops, diversify crops to minimize risks, supplement food sources from root crops such as cassava, peanuts, and potatoes. In addition, the buffer zone residents should boldly expand advantageous short-term crops, limit the fallow area, and convert inefficient rice-growing areas to other annual crops. - Breeding activities: (1) Forming farms and livestock ranches. It is necessary to plan livestock development towards farm economy, take advantage of the hilly areas to diversify the breeding of cattle and poultry; (2) Speeding ​​up the improvement of local cattle herds in the direction of Zebu: It is important to gradually remove the local herds to increase the number of crossbred cows, striving to reach 50-75% by 2020. In addition, households near the forest need to take advantage of environmental features to raise specialty animals including rabbits, goats, bees, turtles, frogs, etc; (3) It is necessary to pay attention to veterinary activities, stable food sources, regularly watch agricultural extension programs to access seed sources, prices, techniques and disease prevention. - Forestry and natural exploitation activities: Developing forestry towards value enhancement, environmental protection, biodiversity, effective response to climate change and improvement of livelihoods, hunger eradication and reduction are key strategies for the buffer zone. The unused area is 2.05%, of which the hilly area where forest can be planted and forestry development accounts for 60.3% and 1.24% of the total natural land area. Forest allocation in association with land allocation, with priority for households and individuals living near forests, and encouraging support for intensive afforestation of valuable forest trees such as acacia, melaleuca and dalbergia tonkinensis prain... need to be paid much attention to. Implementing zoning areas where non-timber forest products can be exploited, ensuring the regeneration direction need to be encouraged. - Non-agricultural activities: It is necessary to restore and expand the scale of traditional handicraft production activities. Developing tourism in the direction of focusing on quality, increasing the number of days of accommodation, focusing on the quality of tourist services,

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