Teaching grade 10 biology to meet the targeting of career orientation

Based on the structure of career-oriented competence and the

requirements on knowledge and skills of the Grade 10

Biologyprogram, we have built a set of criteria and identified a toolkit

for evaluation. component skills of career-oriented competencies,

which serve as a basis for assessing students' career-oriented

competencies. The toolkit includes a set of questions, exercises,

observation tables, questionnaires that fit the course curriculum

objectives. We have also developed a career-oriented development

pathway to serve as a basis for assessing the achievement level of

career orientation competencies of each student in the experimental

process of the project

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an individual's career goals. 1.2.2.2. Expression of competence career orientation Based on analyzing the views on the career-oriented competence of the authors and based on the characteristics of Vietnamese education, we selected typical characteristics of career-oriented competence as follows: Table 1.1. Career orientation competence Elements Expression 1. Skills for awareness of hobbies and interests of yourself - Determine your interests and abilities. - Demonstrate an understanding of personal characteristics related to achieving personal career goals - Determine your desires, dreams, goals and use for career guidance for a lifetime 2. Awareness skills on application of relevant subject and career knowledge - Identify the core knowledge of the subject - Identify and explain the relationship between academic content and practical applications in industry fields. - Analyze job information, agencies and enterprises and use this knowledge for future career and job selection. 6 3.Career planning skills - Determining learning goals related to career choice for yourself - Determining expected career priorities - Identify measures to develop occupational skills (volunteering, extracurricular activities, part-time work, transition programs from school to work, etc.) - Develop a personal career plan 1.2.3. Active teaching methods contribute to meeting career-oriented goals in the field of science for students Based on the previous research results and advantages in meeting the goal of career orientation, we choose to organize exploral activities (under the 5E Inquiry Learning Model) and teach experience to organize teaching activities to discover science applications and career experiences to improve the career-oriented competence for students through grade 10 Biology. These teaching methods will be used in teaching Biology, designed, organized and test the effectiveness of increasing the interest in the subject and promoting students' learning and career aspirations related to Biology on the basis of the theoretical model of expected value of Eccles (2009). Our research model is shown in Figure 1.5. Figure 1.5. Research model Student’s career aspiration Student’s ultility of science and career awareness Student’s career planning Student’s science interest 5E Inquiry Learning and teaching model Experiential activities 7 5E Inquiry Learning Model Model 5E (short for words: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. Applied quite popular in science classes and STEM integrated programs in the US. The 5E Inquiry Learning model is based on cognitive constructivism of the learning process, whereby students build new knowledge based on knowledge or experience. Experimental teaching model of David Kolb: consists of four stages: (1) Concrete experience, (2) Reflective observation (3) Abstract conceptualisation: (4) Active Experimetation. Figure 1.6. The basis for designing and organizing 5E discovery teaching and experiential teaching activities for University of Foreign Studies for students 1.2.4. Opportunities to develop career-oriented competence when organizing discovery teaching under the 5E model and experiential teaching 1.2.4.1. The relationship between teaching discovery under the 5E model and the goal of developing career-oriented competencies Exploration teaching in 5E model has many opportunities for teachers to practice vocational orientation competencies for students, Designing topics based on teaching 5E model, teaching experiential activities Learning activities exploring scientific applications The component skills Organize learning activities Students perform learning activities Developing the component competencies The basis for using 5E model and experiential teaching to develop career-oriented competence Career orientation competence (Objectives) Developing career-oriented competence The basis for designing 5E inquiry activities and career experiential activities 8 this relationship is shown at each stage of the teaching model. 1.2.4.2. Opportunities to develop career-oriented competence when organizing experiential teaching Experiential teaching is a teaching method that has a positive impact on raising interest in the subject, thereby contributing to the development of career-oriented competencies for students. The correlation between the characteristics of experiential teaching and the corresponding manifestations of vocational orientation competencies is shown at each specific stage of the experience cycle. 1.2.5. Assessment tool for career orientation We have studied and applied flexibly the tools that have been tested in the studies of Novodvorsky (1993), Ornstein (2005), PISA (2015) to develop a scale to assess the career-oriented competencies of Students in teaching Biology. 1.3. Current situation of career-oriented education in Vietnamese schools We investigated over 235 Biology teachers at some high schools in Hanoi, Nam Dinh, Hoa Binh, Vinh Phuc and Lao Cai province and 319 students of some High Schools in Hanoi about the content, degree of implementation and effectiveness of teaching and learning activities aimed at career-oriented education, students' awareness of interests, interests and access to career information through teaching students study in high school. 1.3.5. Survey results 1.3.5.1. Evaluate factor measurement scales and analyze discovery factors in the model All factors have Cronbach's Alpha coefficient greater than 0.6, the variables correlate with the total variable less than 0.3. This proves that all factors have achieved the necessary reliability of the scale value. 9 1.3.5.2. Frequency of applying teaching activities in teaching Biology of teachers. Experimental activities, practical applications such as students draw conclusions after experiments, students self-study science and study related lessons are less organized by teachers . Teachers are still the main leading role in the learning process, the initiative and creativity of students have not been facilitated to develop through learning activities. 1.3.5.3. Current situation of career-oriented teaching through Biology Learning about the application of subject knowledge in professions and career information is less organized by teachers during class. 1.3.5.4. Frequency of implementation of the method of teaching experience of teachers. Teachers can perform from fairly good levels into experimental design, practical activities for experiential teaching, bringing appropriate learning tasks for each student. These are favorable conditions for the implementation of experiential activities, applying lesson knowledge to practice for students. 1.3.5.5. Frequency of conducting discovery teaching activities Discovery teaching activities are rarely organized by teachers in teaching practice. However, preparing and giving lectures in class are often organized by teachers. 1.3.5.6. Assess the impact of factors on Career-oriented teaching through Biology Teaching career-oriented teaching through Biology is closely related to experiential activities, teacher-led teaching activities, teaching discovery and applied science and technology. 1.3.5.8. Attitudes and perceptions of students with Biology 10 Science subjects are attractive to students, but learning biology in the classroom has not created interest and interest for them. 1.3.5.9. Situation awareness and access to student career information Students have not been fully introduced with the career information associated with the subject, the location of career information is unknown, more than 70% of students have not been fully introduced about the steps that students should take when choosing choose a career. 1.3.5.10. The degree to which students participate in learning activities 1.3.5.11. Career aspirations of students The fields related to science with general and biology in particular have not attracted the attention of students. In particular, the percentage of students wishing for scientific careers is very low with 18.5% of students. The proportion of students who want to major in science related subjects after high school is 28.1%. Conclusion of chapter 1 • The researches in the world and in Vietnam have affirmed the role of career orientation for students, helping them choose careers that are suitable for their abilities, interests and interests. Career-oriented career in the field of science and technology through the subjects for students, usually not carried out individually in a subject but with the integration and manipulation of knowledge of many subjects, especially science subjects. learn. The authors have focused on studying the influence of individual factors and the academic environment of academic subjects on career choice of STEM. • The results of an overview of career-oriented competencies, the relationship between the characteristics of experiential teaching and the manifestations of career-oriented competencies are important directions for us to continue researching the topic. propose processes and measures to organize teaching students to meet the career-oriented goals.  Through structural analysis, the characteristics of career- 11 oriented competence, we identify three characteristics of career- oriented competencies that need to be measured: Awareness of hobbies, interests, awareness apply relevant subject and career knowledge and career planning skills.  We have conducted a survey of the current situation of teaching and biology to develop students' career-oriented capacity in high schools. The survey results show that students are aware of the importance of career-oriented teaching, but the effectiveness of organizing teaching activities to guide careers for students is limited. The frequency of students participating in experiential learning activities, exploring and applying science and technology is provided with sufficient information about the field of occupation. Interest in the subject is not high, the proportion of students with career aspirations related to biology is low. CHAPTER 2: ORGANIZATION OF TEACHING GRADE 10 BIOLOGY TO MEET THE TARGETING OF CAREER ORIENTATIONS. 2.1. Principles of organizing teaching Grade 10 Biology for career orientation Building and organizing career-oriented learning activities in teaching Grade 10 Biologyis a necessary job to improve the efficiency of career orientation for students but does not turn Biology lessons into vocational education lessons principles should be ensured: Ensuring the calculation of career-oriented goals and the requirements of the Biology program; Ensure systematic; Ensure practicality. 2.2. Structure of the grade 10 Biology program in the General Education Program 2018 2.2.1. Features of the High School Biology program 12 2.2.2. Content structure of grade 10 Biology program Through the analysis of Biological content 10, it can be seen that the content circuits are deployed in the direction from the basic biological content, requiring students to apply it in real life, application in technological processes in the careers related to biology (food technology, medicine, agriculture, ...). This is a favorable opportunity to organize teaching with the goal of career orientation for students through this subject. 2.2.3. Career orientation in teaching Biology grade 10’s content topics 2.3. Design learning activities to orient career in teaching grade 10 Biology 2.3.1. The process of designing learning activities to guide students' career in teaching Biology 10 Figure 2.1. Process of designing learning activities 2.3.2. Illustrative example: topic Chemical composition of Cells 2.3.3. Learning activities aimed at career orientation Based on the analysis of the Biological content structure 10 and the content of learning can deploy career-oriented teaching combined with the process of building learning activities and teaching practices, we build the Learning activities aimed at career orientation for students in part 3 Cell biology and part 4 Microbiology and viruses 2.4. Teaching Grade 10 Biologyto meet career-oriented goals 2.4.1. The process of organizing teaching Grade 10 Biology meets career- oriented goals 13 Figure 2.6. Teaching and learning process for career orientation 2.4.4. The correlation between teaching organization process for career orientation and career orientation development goal 2.5. Assessment of career-oriented competencies of students in teaching grade 10 Biology Figure 2.7. Assessment process of career orientation of students Step 5. Dicussion the results and conclusions Step 4. Analyze and process data using SPSS software Step 3. Develop a set of evaluation and data collection tools Step 2. Determine the competency development path Step 1. Determine evaluation criteria and indicators of career orientation competence Teacher Attract students to participate Organizing activities of experience and discovery associated with career orientation Organizing activities to explore career , orienting and supporting students Support, orientation Organization for students self-assessment, peer evaluation and teacher evaluation Student Determine the objectives Participate in learning activities, recognize your abilities and interests Explore career Make your own career plan Review and revise Step 1. Set objectives Step 2. Discover students’ abilities and interests Step 3. Apply knowledge in career Step 4. Career planning Step 5. Review and revise 14 Set up evaluation criteria: We develop a table of criteria to assess students' career orientation competencies with 4 levels from level 1 to level 4 respectively from low to high according to the development path of skills with 4 levels on the Dreyfus scale. At each level of the scale, we determine proficiency based on the levels achieved by the component skills. These criteria are based on reference from learning standards for career development of high school students in New York state (USA) (Learning Standards for Career Development and Occupational Studies, 2016) and suitable for research objectives of the topic. Based on the skill evaluation criteria table, teachers will monitor the learning activities of each student group and each individual of each group. To evaluate the proficiency of 3 component skills (A, B, C), we determine the behavioral expressions of each skill (A1, A2, B1, B2, ...). Each of these behavioral manifestations is assessed at 3 levels: No skill performance (M1) is available; There are operations that perform skills at a simple level, low results (M2), perform skills at the proficient and highly effective (M3) level. Develop a career-oriented competency assessment tool Tools to assess students' career-oriented competencies include questions, exercises in tests after each teaching topic, observation slips of student behavior, attitudes, taking notes, and questionnaires. Conclusion of chapter 2 Based on the analysis of the curriculum content of Grade 10 Biology(2018), identifying the contents of Grade 10 Biologythat can be implemented in career-oriented teaching and the general process of vocational education, we have proposed : 1. The process of designing career-oriented learning activities in teaching Students includes 3 steps: Identifying contents that can teach 15 career orientation and goals to be achieved; Determine how to organize experiences and discover related content and career; Design specific activities. We have built 5 learning topics to implement career-oriented teaching. 2. The process of organizing teaching Grade 10 Biologymeets the career-oriented goals including 5 steps: 1) Determining goals, 2) Discovering your abilities and interests, 3) Discovering careers, 4) Career planning, 5) Assessment and adjustment. 3. Based on the structure of career-oriented competence and the requirements on knowledge and skills of the Grade 10 Biologyprogram, we have built a set of criteria and identified a toolkit for evaluation. component skills of career-oriented competencies, which serve as a basis for assessing students' career-oriented competencies. The toolkit includes a set of questions, exercises, observation tables, questionnaires that fit the course curriculum objectives. We have also developed a career-oriented development pathway to serve as a basis for assessing the achievement level of career orientation competencies of each student in the experimental process of the project. CHAPTER 3: PEDAGOGICAL EXPERIMENTS 3.1. Purpose of pedagogical experiment Pedagogical experiment to test scientific hypotheses, feasibility and effectiveness of the teaching process of Biology and teaching methods and techniques to train students' ability to orient students according to the given topics design. 3.2. Experimental object We conducted experiments on 319 students in 10th grade of 3 high schools: Experimental School ( The Vietnam Institue of Educational Sciences; Phuc Tho High School (Phuc Tho district, Hanoi); Thang Long High School (Hai Ba Trung, Hanoi). 3.3. Experimental method 16 During the experiment, all 319 students of the 3 schools were organized to teach career orientation with a teaching plan. We tracked and assessed the indicators of 3 component skills of orientation competencies in students participating in experiments. On the other hand, we study the case through the monitoring of 9 students, making comments on the relationship between the level of biological knowledge development and the speed of developing career-oriented competencies in the learning process. . 3.4. Experimental results and discussion 3.4.1. Pre-test experimental results The results of assessing the component skills of career orientation competence of 42 students are shown in Table 3.3. By analyzing the survey results, we found that we need to adjust the teaching process more appropriately to improve skills for students, need to integrate with more practical applications of life to increase interest in learning in the student. We designed 5 tests at experimental times to increase the reliability of the study. 3.4.2. Official experimental results 3.4.2.1. Assess the development of component skills of career-oriented competencies through tests  Assess the development of your cognitive skills and interests Through the continuous learning and training process throughout the school year, the number of students reaching level 3 increases gradually. The percentage of students achieving level 3 (skilled) in the second test was 12.4%, the third test was 25.1%, the fourth was 38.3%, the fifth was 48.8%. This shows that students' cognitive skills and interest in subjects have gradually increased through the stages of training. The results of determining the sample statistical parameters are shown in Table 3.4. The results show that there is an increase in the mean value (mean) of the level of skills achieved by students through the tests from 1.12 at the 1st to 2.37 at the 5th test. the development of 17 students' skills from level 1 to level 2 has gradually moved up to the level of skills and proficiency (level 3). This demonstrates that the impact measures are effective on the development of students' self- awareness skills. The standard deviation and the range of variation across tests are within the range of reliable fluctuations. Test with hypothesis H0: There is no difference between tests of cognitive skills and interest in self-interest, H1: there is a difference between tests of hobbies and hobbies body, expressed as p-value (sig.) ≤ 0.05. Compare the p-value of the t-test determined at 0.05 (significance level 5% = 0.05, 95% confidence level). Through observing the students' performance when performing learning tasks and interviewing students, the interest and interest in the subject were clearly shown. Thereby, it can be seen that the measures to organize experiential teaching activities, discovery teaching 5E have had positive effects on the interest and interest in the subject for students.  Assess the level achieved in the application of relevant subject and career knowledge Figure 3.2. Percentage of students achieving skill levels that apply relevant subject and career knowledge through tests The results of determining the sample statistical parameters shown in Table 3.6 show an increase in the mean value (mean) of students' skill 85.4 48.4 12.5 5.5 0 14.6 30.3 46.7 48.6 42.2 0 21.3 40.8 45.9 57.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Kiểm tra 1 Kiểm tra 2 Kiểm tra 3 Kiểm tra 4 Kiểm tra 5 Tỉ lệ p h ần t ră m H S Lần kiểm tra Mức 1 Mức 2 Mức 3 18 level achieved through tests from 1.14 at the time of the test. 1 to 2.39 on the 5th test. It shows that the skills development of students from low level (level 1, level 2) has gradually moved up to skill level (level 3). This shows that the impact measures are effective on the development of students' skills in applying subject and career knowledge.  Assess the development of career planning skills Figure 3.3. Results level achieved on students' planning skills through tests We randomly selected 9 students to analyze the development of career-oriented competencies through the training process on 5 empirical topics in, the results are shown in Figure 3.4. Test results show that all students have an improvement in the level of expression of career-oriented competence through the experimental process. 75.2 58.5 34.4 20.5 10.5 24.8 33.2 50.5 45.2 42.4 0 8.3 15.1 34.3 47.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Kiểm tra 1 Kiểm tra 2 Kiểm tra 3 Kiểm tra 4 Kiểm tra 5 Tỉ lệ p h ẩn t ră m H S Lần kiểm tra Mức 1 Mức 2 Mức 3 19 Figure 3.4. The degree to which students develop career- oriented competencies through empirical topics 3.4.2.2. The model of the impact of the method of organizing teaching Grade 10 Biologyto the expression of career-oriented competence We use the questionnaire to evaluate the expression of pre- empirical and post-career career orientation competencies (section 2.2) based on the proposed research model (Figure 1.5) based on the theoretical model. of Eccles (2009). Analyze the results of student competency development Discriptive Statistics results in table 3.10 and chart 3.6 show that the average of the 3 component skills of career-oriented competencies increased after the experiment. The average planning skill is 2.43, the average self-interest and interest awareness skills are 2.4, the average career-related skill is 2.49 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Chủ đề 1 Chủ đề 2 Chủ đề 3 Chủ đề 4 Chủ đề 5 Trần Quang Huy Nguyễn Gia Hưng Nguyễn Vũ Minh Khuê Nguyễn Duy Kiên Nguyễn Tùng Lâm Hoàng Lê Hà Linh Phạm Thanh Thảo Trần Bảo Lộc Nguyễn Hồng Phúc 20 Figure 3.5. Comparison of expression of career orientation competence before and after the experiment Table 3.10. Mean, standard deviation (SD) of the factors factors Before the experiment After the experiment Mean SD Mean SD Recognize your hobbies and interests 1.97 0.52 2.40 0.52 Determine the relationship between the subject and the career 1.60 0.54 2.49 0.62 Career planning 1.97 0.81 2.43 0.78 Self-Efficacy 1.61 0.62 2.51 0.61 Application of subject knowledge 1.08 0.33 2.50 0.49 Career aspirations 1.43 0.63 2.55 0.60 Experiential Learning 1.91 0.51 2.61 0.50 5E Inquiry learning model 1.60 0.59 2.32 0.63 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Nhận thức sở thích, hứng thú của bản thân Xác định mối liên quan giữa môn học và nghề nghiệp Lập kế hoạch về nghề nghiệp Nguyện vọng nghề nghiệp 1.97 1.6 1.97 1.43 2.4 2.49 2.43 2.55 G iá t rị t ru n g b ìn h ( M e an ) Các nhân tố Trước thực nghiệm Sau thực nghiệm 21 Impact model of career-oriented teaching Diagram 3.1. Summary of the correlation between variables in the research model The results of linear regression analysis show that there is a positive impact of 'career-related experience teaching' to 'awareness of applied subject and career knowledge', expressed in standard coefficients. Standard

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