Tóm tắt Luận án Administration of private universities in a not - For - profit direction in Vietnam today

 Lack of strategies for scientific research activities, not focused and invested properly for scientific research activities.

 The administrative and financial mechanism has ben not clear and has not created a motivation resulting in creating barriers for the development of scientific research activities.

 Difficult to access scientific research projects at national, ministerial and provincial level because there is no opportunity to bid on the topic.

 Scientific research activities of students have not been focused, have not been widely implemented and become a movement in non-public universities.

g. Regarding international cooperation

- International cooperation activities of non-public universities have not been implemented in a uniform and unified manner in terms of strategic orientation, financial resources, training environment, training programs, etc.

h. Regarding business connection

Very few schools have a department of co-operation with enterprises to help find jobs for students.


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ministration of training activities and training quality of private universities in a non-profit direction Management of enrolment Education Law 2005 granted autonomy to organize enrollment to the universities. But in fact, the enrollment regulation issued by the Ministry of Education and Training stipulated the responsibility of the Ministry to manage almost the entire enrollment work... Starting from the enrollment period in 2012, the Ministry of Education and Training granted the right to schools in a more proactive manner, in particular, still floor score with the above assertion, regulations on floor score that were inherently considered a major obstacle in their enrollment by non-public schools would be kept unchaged. In the Higher Education Law, educational institutions are autonomous, self-determined and self-responsible for determining enrollment criteria, publicizing targets at the same time with conditions to ensure the quality of education. Management of training programs The training program is a collection of activities that work together to achieve the school's educational goals. All inputs used to support the implementation of the Training Program and the outputs of the implementation process include developed talent, achieved knowledge and skills and improved thinking capacity. The Ministry of Education and Training decentralizes schools to organize specialized training upon grasping social demands. The Ministry only manages industry groups and training majors. Training quality management Regulations on current training quality objectives for private universities must be self-developed, all schools must self-assess and then send them to the Ministry of Education and Training. The deployment in some schools has been still formalistic, as a result, the quality of the self-evaluation reports is not high. Funding for education quality assurance and accreditation has not met the requirements yet. A small number of schools have proactively set aside funding but it is still very limited. 2.2.4. Management of science and technology of private universities in a non-profit direction Science and technology activities in the University are aimed at contributing to solving the following issues: Improve the quality of education and training to meet the requirements of highly skilled S&T human resources of the country; Put scientific achievements and technical advances in service of the implementation of the tasks of developing education and training, economic and social development; Foster and improve the professional qualifications of lecturers, researchers and S&T staff, gradually integrate with the modern S&T industry of the region and the world; Generate revenues from S&T activities. 2.2.5. Management of financial activities and material facilities of private universities in a non-profit direction Non-public universities apply the accounting regime for small and medium enterprises. Private universities operate in the principle of self-financing, do not receive funding from the state budget. Private universities have a high degree of autonomy in the field of financial activities, take self-responsibility in their operation. The basic difference between private and public schools is the source of construction investment and operational funding. Here comes a source of equity capital of the investors for private universities or the initial investment of the class organizers for private vocational training classes, the main source of funding for activities is tuition fees. In summary, not-for-profit PUs basically operate proactively to the law and society. 2.3. Factors affecting administration of private universities in a not-for-profit direction 2.3.1. Internal factors Operational objectives Operational objectives of an organization are fundamental to the organization. The operational objectives of universities in general and of the not-for-profit private universities in particular are defined by the functions and tasks of the schools, concretized into quantitative and qualitative requirements for the results of activities of the schools. Organizational structure Include: Leadership and Orientation Department, Specialized functional departments (units), Consultancy and advisory departments and Controling department. Thus, in the management and administration of not-for-profit PUs, the managing entity must consider the organizational structure as one of the important factors that must be set up in order to determine the management and administrative mechanism for deploying the basic functions of management and administration. Management mechanism Management mechanism (or adminstrative mechanism) of an organization demonstrates the way in which the management and administration of the managing entity to link and coordinate the departments and individuals to perform functions and mission of the organization. Human Resources Human resources are the basic factor to ensure the quality of activities. Therefore, in managing a not-for-profit PU, the managing entity must consider human resources as the most important factor, in which the position of the head is a prerequisite to ensure quality and efficiency for activities of the schools. Material facilities The material facilities of the not-for-profit PU are the necessary means and conditions to ensure the quality of its activities. Therefore, in the not-for-profit PU management, the managing entity must pay attention to the management mechanism of material facilities. Operating environment The operating environment is one of the necessary conditional factors to ensure the quality of activities of the university. Management information A management information system includes: Information human resource organization (human in charge of collecting, processing, storing and transmitting information); Information material facilities (information devices and software); Information database (databases related to any activity of the organization). In the management of not-for-profit PU, the managing entity must set up a management information system and a mechanism to manage this system. Method of quality control One of the quality assurance factors of an organization's activities is quality control. The main method of quality control of a not-for-profit PUV is to check and evaluate the university's activities, but more importantly, the quality control activities follow the specific criteria, standards and regulations in the evaluation standard. 2.3.2. External factors Law, mechanisms and policies for higher education development Background of international integration on higher education Technology revolution 4.0 2.4. Foreign experiences in administration of not-for-profit private university and lessons for Vietnam 2.4.1. Private university practice that operates in a not-for-profit direction in the United States The United States is home to many not-for-profit universities with outstanding achievements, partially because of the tradition of donation and the State’s support policies. A not-for-profit university in the United States usually starts with donation fund source from private enterprises or social or religious organizations. During the operation, the school continues to rely on donations and tuition fees. The school is exempt from taxes, and expenditures for investment managers also enjoy a much lower income tax rate than regular enterprises. 2.4.2. The practice of a private university is not for profit in Malaysia During the process of higher education development, Malaysia has attached great importance to the development of higher education in general and the PUs in particular. This country has many policies that make a breakthrough in developing PUs in both quantity and quality. Accordingly, Malaysia allows individuals, large enterprises, non-governmental organizations and political organizations to establish PUs; exempts income tax or subsidies investment tax for foreign universities opening branches in Malaysia; provides loans through the National Fund for Education for private school students; licenses eligible private schools to recruit international students and support the PUs to provide higher education services abroad through an internationalization program. 2.4.3. Lesson for Vietnam Vietnam's policies for for-profit and not-for-profit private universities are different from world common practice. There are reasons related to the birth circumstances and the characteristics of Vietnamese higher education. Vietnam's regulations on not-for-profit private universities are based on an inconsistent and alien understanding compared to the international practice, which has resulted in inadequacies and disputes. So far, Vietnam has never had a truly not-for-profit private school, whether following the universal understanding in the world or even if only applying the current definition within Vietnam's legal framework. Chapter 3 CURRENT SITUATION OF ADMINISTRATION OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN A NOT-FOR-PROFIT DIRECTION IN VIETNAM TODAY 3.1. Overview of the development of private universities and not-for-profit private universities in Vietnam Period from 1988-1994 Period from 1997 to 2004 Period from 2005 - 2008 Period from 2009 to the present 3.2. Analysis of the current state of operation of not-for-profit private universities in Vietnam 3.2.1. Regarding the number of universities and students Public Non-public Total The number of PUs in Vietnam has increased for the past time. Diagram 3.1: Number of universities for the past years (Source: Dang Thi Minh (2014) Statistics of data of private universities and statistics of Ministry of Education and Training) Diagram 3.3: Number of students at PUs for the past years (Source: Dang Thi Minh (2014) Statistics of data of private universities and statistics of Ministry of Education and Training) 3.2.2. Major training majors and forms Most PUs are oriented towards multidisciplinary, multi-field and high-quality manpower training. Most schools diversify their training programs: full-time, in-service, continuing education, master’s degree. 3.3. Current situation of adminstrationof private universities in a not-for-profit direction in Vietnam today 3.3.1. Current situation of administrative institution of private universities in a not-for-profit direction in Vietnam The organization of management aparatus of not-for-profit PUs is relatively similar and can be divided into 3 levels of executive management: Senior management (Level of planning, organizing, directing and inspecting) including: Board of Directors, School Board, Councils, etc. Middle-level management (specific executive level): heads, deputy heads of departments, divisions, faculties, directors of centers, etc. Low-level management (Detailed executive level): team leader, group leader, etc. A Rector of a not-for-profit PU is recognized by a competent State agency after being elected. All activities of the school is decided by the general meeting of shareholders. This general meeting elects a board of directors representing the school and has great powers to determine every development path of the school. Currently, PUs comply with the requirement that members of the Board of Directors must have a representative of local authority, which is not reasonable because this person may not understand the school's activities to participate in voting on important issues for the development of the school. The school board has no real power in deciding the rector title and important matters of the school, etc. The legal framework of the State is still inadequate. Universities are governed by a series of management regulations and policies in which many unreasonable guidelines make it difficult to implement. Preferential policies have not reached the schools yet: not granted clean land as public schools, still have to fulfill their tax obligations as enterprises until Decision 693/2013/ QD-TTg replaces Decision No. 1466/2008/ QD-TTg but these new policies have not come into practice yet. Therefore, building and developing the type of PU, especially not-for-profit PU is indispensable. To do so, the schools need to: be given full autonomy; an equal environment for fair competition between public and private schools; enjoy the school land lease policies; receive supports related to tuition fees, scholarships and long-term loans for students (fair between public and private schools). 3.3.2 Actual situation of adminstration of private university personnel in a non-profit direction Lecturers of private universities are also selected based on the standards of the Ministry of Education. The surveyed universities all adhere to the use of lecturers who perform the duties and rights of a lecturer as specified in the Law on Higher Education. Lecturers at PUs in a not-for-profit direction are recruited from public schools, from newly graduated students and retired people with good teaching experience. Most lecturers working at PUs in a not-for-profit direction follow the method of teaching contract, receiving wages based on the number of teaching hours, full-time lecturers account for a very small proportion, at present, the lecturers in private schools are very lacked in quantity and poor in quality. Figure 3.1: Evaluation of lecturer quality adminstration (Source: Survey result, 2019) The development and implementation of policies and regimes for teaching staff such as salaries, bonuses, policies to attract and retain talents has beem still limited. 3.3.3. Actual situation of administration of training activities and quality of private university training in a not-for-profit direction Actual situation of enrollment adminstration Statistics show that the size of enrollment of schools is also different. There are some schools enrolling nearly enough norms for majors but there are also schools with few majors compared to the list of permitted training. Some schools focuses on enrolling students at the university level and fail to continue to enroll and train at the college level. Actual situation of training program content administration Table 3.4: Evaluation of students on teaching content No. Criteria Student rating 1 Length of training program is appropriate 4.4 2 Amount of knowledge is moderate 4.1 3 Training program has a practical meaning 3.5 4 Training program has a reasonable theoretical and practical ratio 3.6 5 Learning roadmap is appropriate 3.8 6 Length of training program is appropriate 3.2 (Source: Survey result, 2019) Regarding the teaching content, the survey result of students also assessed at a quite good level. It could be seen that the PUs had a teaching content in accordance with the demand of students and the practice. Figure 3.2: Evaluation of students on teaching content (Source: Survey result, 2019) Table 3.5: Evaluation of lecturer on teaching content No. Criteria Scoring of lecturer 1 Training content is consistent with the learning outcomes 4.0 2 Training program has clear objectives 3.5 3 Lecturers have chance to participate in the development of training program 3.2 4 Teaching content is abundant and updated 3.7 5 Training plan is clear and appropriate 3.3 6 Training content is consistent with the learning outcomes 3.8 (Source: Summary of survey results, 2018) Regarding the teaching content, lecturers in the classroom also said that the teaching content was quite appropriate, the program had clear objectives and the teaching content was abundant. Figure 3.3: Evaluation of lecturers on the teaching content Actual situation of managing teaching methods The innovation in teaching methods in universities in our country today is sometimes only formalistic. Teaching devices such as projector, video ... are just a means to support the quality of teaching, the most important thing is the awareness that education must be creative, sense of responsibility, which is reflected in the fact that the improvement of methods and curricula hasn’t been focused on. Table 3.6: Evaluation of lecturers on teaching method management No. Criteria Scoring of lecturer 1 Timetable is organized scientifically and appropriately 3.7 2 Training plans are public and specifically introduced 3.2 3 Scientific information of lecturers is updated and fully provided to students 3.1 4 Students can be flexible to transfer majors and faculties 4.2 (Source: Survey result, 2019) Figure 3.4: Evaluation of lecturers on the teaching management methods (Source: Survey result, 2019) Evaluation of students on teaching methods Table 3.7: Evaluation of students on teaching methods No. Criteria Scoring of lecturer 1 Lecturers have teaching methods that encourage students to study 3.3 2 Lecturers have modern teaching methods (highly interactive) 3.2 3 Lecturers are able to use modern facilities (computer, projector, internet...) 2.9 (Source: Research result, 2019) According to Circular No. 36/2014/ TTLT-BGDDT-BNV on stipulating the codes and standards of professional titles of lecturers, which clearly stipulate that university lecturers must have an IT qualification with a skill standard of using basic information technology. In accordance with the provisions of Circular No. 03/2014/ TT-BTTTT, the school and lecturers also focused on improving information technology and applying modern teaching methods to lectures. However, Circular No. 36 only required for public university lecturers, therefore for PUs that haven’t implemented thoroughly, despite using computers and applying modern teaching methods but also only assessed at a good level (2.9 – 3.3). Figure 3.5: Evaluation of students on teaching methods (Source: Survey result,2019) Actual situation of quality management of education and training The quality of education and training is reflected by the quality of new students and graduates every year at PUs in a not-for-profit direction. Diagram 3.6: No. of newly recruited students, graduates and student scale for the period of 2012-2016 Newly enrolled Total Graduate (Source: Pham Thi Huyen, 2017) Training scale and number of graduates in private universities have tended to decrease slightly; Total number of newly recruited students is not stable and the number of graduates has tended to decrease. Adminstration of training service quality should be evaluated based on many criteria with the perspective of many stakeholders. Table 3.8: Alumni evaluation on the quality of educational services at USSH No. Criteria Scoring of former students 1 Training program 4.3 2 Teaching staff 4.2 3 Service, supportive staff 4.0 4 Learning and research environment 3.8 5 Material facilities 3.7 6 Training support services 3.8 (Source: Survey result, 2019) Figure 3.6: Evaluation of former students on quality of educational services at not-for-profit PUs (Source: Survey 2019) Figure 3.7: Evaluation of former students on level of working satisfaction (Source: Survey result, 2019) Table 3.10: Recruiter's evaluation on the level of response of PU students in a not-for-profit direction No. Criteria Scoring of former students 1 Trained specialty 3.5 2 Good working attitude 3.8 3 Good working skills 3.1 4 Highly practical knowledge 3.8 5 Desire to be progressive and eager to learn 3.2 6 Good job adaptability 3.8 (Source: Survey result, 2019) Recruiters have not really appreciated the training expertise as well as the working attitude and skills of graduates of PUs. Figure 3.8: Evaluation of recruiters on satisfaction level of students of PUs in a not-for-profit direction (Source: Survey result, 2019) Diagram 3.7: Knowledge and skills needed to foster non-public university students Unit: % No fostering needed Specialty knowledge Specialty skills IT Foreign language Soft skills Others (Source: Pham Thi Huyen, 2018) 3.3.4. Actual situation of adminstration on science and technology activities Many leaders of universities in Vietnam in general and PUs in particular have not really paid attention to S&T activities and attached S&T service activities. The universities are not correctly aware that innovation in S&T is the driving force for the development of the school and the revenue source of the school when it comes to autonomy (Source: https://moet.gov.vn/giaoducquocdan/khoa-hoc-va-cong-nghe, on 307/2017: Promotion of scientific and technological activities in higher education institutions) . 3.3.5. Actual situation of administration of finance and material facilities Private universities have the financial resources as stipulated in Article 64 of the Law on Higher Education, but unlike public universities, private universities do not have revenue from the state budget. The revenues of private universities are mainly in the following categories: - Tuition fees and enrollment fees; - Revenues from activities of training cooperation, science and technology, production, business and service; - Sponsorship, aid, gifts and donations of domestic and foreign individuals and organizations; - Investment by domestic and foreign organizations and individuals; By using the financial different portion between revenues and expenditures in private universities, the surveyed private universities shall also comply with the provisions of Article 51 of the University’s Charter as follows: - Fulfill obligations to the state budget, contribute taxes in accordance with the applicable law. - Divide profits to capital-contributing members in the proportion of contributed capital after fulfilling their obligations toward the state budget, set aside funds under the applicable regulations and under internal financial regulations and organization regulations and activities of the school. - The level of income payment for employees and the level of dividend sharing for capital contributors and other expenditures comply with the internal financial regulations and organizational and operational regulations of the school. However, Actual surveys of funding sources for training show that: The current revenue of private universities mainly come from tuition fees. Revenues from scientific research, production labor, social services at private universities has not accounted for a high proportion of the university's revenues yet. As surveyed, the methods of capital contribution of some schools are as follows: Some private universities mobilize for capital contribution from initial shareholders in two forms: Shareholders bear risks and shareholders don’t bear risks. Besides, raising capital in the way that shareholders initially contribute capital follows two forms: founding shareholders contributing capital and owning shareholders. Revenues from schools include fees and charges; regular tuition fees; part-time tuition; revenue from enrollment; revenue from the center; revenue from re-learning; revenue from production and business activities; revenue from stay-in and other revenues. Expenditures include operating expenditures; expenditures for production and business and other expenditures. The ratio of total profits to total expenditures of private universities reaches 143%. Structure of revenues and expenditures In general, the structure of revenues and expenditures of PUs is relatively similar. Tuition fee revenue is still the main source of revenue for universities, accounting for over 90% of total revenues of the universities. Revenues from scientific research or technology transfer and business consultancy are almost absent or account for a negligible proportion in the revenue structure. Figure 3.9: Revenue structure of private schools 2016 Full-time tuition fee 2016 52.6% Charges, fees 2016; 38.1% Revenue from production and business activities 2016; 1.3% Charge for stay-in 2016; 0.5% Other revenues 2016; 2.0% Part-time tuition fee 2016; 4.4% Charge for enrollment 2016; 0.2% Revenue from centers, hospitals 2016; 0.3% Revenue from re-learning 2016; 0.5% Revenue from score improvement 2016; 0.2% Other; 9.3% (Source: Report on research results of non-public universities made by the Ministry of Education and Training, 2017) In the opposite direction, the non-public schools mainly spend on the regular activities of the school such as salaries for employees, charges for electricity and water, maintenance of material facilities ... The expenditures on scientific research, supporting students, unions, upgrading the system account for a very small proportion in the expenditure structure. Figure 3.10: Expenditure structure of private schools 2016 Other expenditure, 7% Expenditure for production and business activit

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