Luận văn Warm – up activities in teaching and learning English at grade 10A5 in Cai Be high school

TABLE OF CONTENT

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS i

TABLE OF CONTENT ii

Part I. INTRODUCTION 1

1. Motivation for the study: 1

2. Aim of the research: 1

3. The research question: 1

4. The research method: 1

5. Significance of the research: 2

6. Scope of the research: 2

7. Organization of the study 2

Part II. THE CONTENT 4

Chapter One. BACKGROUND INFORMATION 4

I. 1. Cai Be high school 4

I. 2. Teachers staff: 4

I. 3. Students: 4

I. 4. Warm-up activities 6

I. 4. 1. Definition of warm-up activities 6

I. 4. 2. The value of warm-up activities 7

I. 4. 3. Why do we use warm-up activity? 8

Chapter Two. METHODOLOGY 9

II. 1. Research question 9

II. 2. The researcher 9

II. 3. The setting 9

II. 4. The subjects 9

II.5. Data collection instrument 9

II. 5. 1. Questionnaires 10

II. 5. 2. Observation 11

II. 6. Data collection procedure 11

II. 6. 1. Questionnaires 11

II. 6. 2. Observation 12

Chapter Three. Result and Discussion 13

III. 1. Result of interview 13

III. 1. 1. Students 13

III. 1. 2. English teachers 16

III. 2. Result of observation 19

III. 3. Summary 19

Chapter Four. Recommendation and Conclusion 20

IV.1. Conclusions 20

IV. 2. Recommendation 21

IV. 1. 1. For English teachers 21

IV. 1. 2. For students 21

IV. 1. 3. For union local 21

IV. 3. Limitations 21

REFERENCES 23

APPENDIX 1 24

APPENDIX 2 25

APPENDIX 3 26

 

 

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od Average Weak Bad Quantity 3 13 20 6 1 Figure 2. Figures learning capacity of students at grade 10A5 Conduct Good Moderated good Average Weak Bad Quantity 33 9 1 0 0 Figure 3. Figures conduct of students at grade 10A5 In English, points of students at grade 10A5 following: Point 8.0 – 10.0 6.5 – 7.9 5.0 – 6.4 4.0 – 4.9 < 4.0 Quantity 3 8 11 13 8 Figure 4. Figures point of students about English at grade 10A5 I. 4. Warm-up activities I. 4. 1. Definition of warm-up activities When preparing your lesson, you star by planning the main items you want to include: the teaching of a new grammar point, or a grammar exercise, or the reading of a text. But once you have prepared the main components of your lesson, and made sure it is learning-rich, varied and interesting, you may find you still need some extra ingredients to make it into a smooth, integrated unit. You may need, for example: - A quick warm-up for the beginning to get your students into the right mood for learning; - An idea for a brief vocabulary review before starting a new text; - A light filler to provide relief after a period of intense effort and concentration; - A brief orientation activity to prepare a change of mood or topic; - A game or amusing item to round off the lesson with a smile. Besides contributing to routine lesson planning, you may find these activities can be of use in non-routine situations as well: when, for example, you have to fill in for another teacher and need some quick, easily-prepared ideas for instant use; or for supplying extra content for an English club evening or English party; for helping a group of new students to get to know one another; or for keeping students profitably busy when you unexpectedly have extra time on your hands. Therefore, to begin the new lesson, we often have warm-up activity, or five-minute activity, or playing game. What is a warm-up activity? It means an activity which is entertaining and engaging, often challenging and an activity in which the learners play and usually interact with other. I. 4. 2. The value of warm-up activities Through warm-up activities, learners practice and internalize vocabulary, grammar and structures. Motivation is enhanced, to, by the warm-up activity and the competition. And added benefit is that the learners’ attention is on the message, not on the language. They acquire language unconsciously, with their whole attention engaged by the activity in much the same way as they acquired their mother tongue. "Activities of a socially infectious nature, where stress is placed on cooperative, rather than the competitive, aspects of some recreation activities, can be used to attract patients' attention and to sustain their interaction. Very simple games played in a small group may serve to encourage participation by making the patient feel an integral and necessary part of the activity." (O'Morrow, The Whys of Recreation Activities for Psychiatric Patients, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 3rd quarter, 1971). Warm-ups help your learners put aside their daily distractions and focus on English. If they haven't used English all day, they may take a little while to shift into it. Warm-ups also encourage whole-group participation which can build a sense of community within the group. For new groups, see the list of ice breakers further down. "Activities.... help them (individuals with mental & emotional illness) reestablish constructive self-attitudes and restore self-confidence and a sense of security." (O'Morrow, The Whys of Recreation Activities for Psychiatric Patients, Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 3rd quarter, 1971). There are many advantages of using warm-up activities in the classroom: 1. Warm-up activities are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class. 2. They are motivating and challenging. 3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Warm-up activities help students to make and sustain the effort of learning. 4. Warm-up activities provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading. 5. They encourage students to interact and communicate. 6. They create a meaningful context for language use. I. 4. 3. Why do we use warm-up activity? - Language learning is hard word. One must make an effort to understand, to repeat accurately, to adapt and to use newly understood language in conversation and in written composition. Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Warm-up activity helps and encourages many learners to sustain their interest and work. - Experiencing language. Warm-up activity also helps the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want take part, and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in other to express their own point of view or give information. Warm-up activity provides one way of helping the learners to experience language rather than merely study it. - Repeated use of language items. Many warm-up activities cause as much use of particular language items as more conventional drill exercise; some warm-up activities do not. What mater, however, is the quality of practice. The contribution of drill exercise lies in the concentration on a language form and its frequent occurrence during a limit period of time. Many warm-up activities similarly provide repeated occurrence and use of a particular language form. By making language convey information and opinion, warm-up activities provide the key features of “drill” with the added opportunity to sense the working of language as living communication. Warm-up activities involve the emotions, and the meaning of the language is thus more vividly experienced. It is, for this reason, probably better absorbed than learning based on mechanical drills. - Central to learning. If it is accepted that warm-up activities provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a language teacher’s repertoire and not merely a way of passing the time. Chapter Two. METHODOLOGY II. 1. Research question What are problems in warm – up activities which teachers give for students? II. 2. The researcher The study is done by Do Van Hung, a student of class English 2006A, Foreign Language Department, Dong Thap University. II. 3. The setting The study took place at Cai Be high school, where I practiced. It was done in cooperation with the teachers and the students at Cai Be high school. The study was carried out in the eighth term of my semesters. The aim is to find out what difficulties the teachers encounter when planning warm – up activities. II. 4. The subjects The subjects of the study are: Teachers in Cai Be high school. Students in Cai Be high school. Warm – up activities. II.5. Data collection instrument A number of produces have been used for collecting information such as interviews, observations, record reviews, diaries, material analysis, etc. (Nunan, 1992). In this research, two instruments: questionnaires and observation were chosen and employed. The usage of these instruments will be discussed below. II. 5. 1. Questionnaires A questionnaire is defined as “an instrument for the collecting data, usually in written form, consisting of open and/or closed questions and other probes requiring a response from subjects” (Nunan, 1992, p.231). Questionnaires are printed form for data collection, which includes questions or statements to which the subjects are expected to respond, often anomalously. Many researchers state that questionnaires are commonly used to collect data on phenomena, which are not easily observed, such as attitudes, motivation and self-conceptions, in other words, those in social science. The present researcher’s choice of using questionnaires comes from the following reasons. Firstly, questionnaires save the researcher’s time. They are self-administered and can be given to large groups at the same time. It is easy to get the information from many people quickly and without the need of the researcher’s presence. Secondly, questionnaires help avoid pressure of interview bias when completing the questionnaires. Furthermore, when anonymity is assured, respondents tend to feel free to what they answer so that the result will be objective. It is because there is no face-to-face interaction between subjects and the interviewer. Questionnaires in the form of closed questions or statements, in which the respondent is asked to select an answer from a list provided by the researcher, provide a great uniformity and standard of responses are easy for statistical analysis afterwards. In order to answer the research questions, the two questionnaires were applied: Questionnaires 1 (See Appendix 1) were given to the students to know their attitude about warm-up activities and their ideas about warm-up activities. The questionnaires included 10 items. Questionnaires 2 (See Appendix 2) were given to the teachers to know the shape of the warm-up activities they use in high school. How do they plan the warm-up activities in teaching periods? The questionnaires consisted of 10 items. II. 5. 2. Observation Wajnryb (1992, p.1) said that observation is multi-faceted tool for learning. The experience of observing comprises more than the time actually spent in the classroom. It also includes preparation for the period in the classroom and follow-up from the time spent there, the preparation can include the selection of a focus and the method of data collection. In this study, observation is to know the real situation of the warm-up activities, and compare the reality with the result of questionnaires 1 and questionnaires 2. Basic standard for teaching period (See Appendix 3) 1. To begin the new lesson, teacher must make warm-up activities. 2. Teacher should often change many forms of warm-up activities. 3. Teacher has to control times of teaching period, all of students in grade. 4. Student is confident, active, self-motivated and self-conscious when taking part in warm-up activities. 5. Warm-up activities must be various and is used to revise old knowledge and to lead to the new lesson. 6. Warm – up activities must be suitable with ability of students. II. 6. Data collection procedure This sub-section describes the steps that were taken to carry out the results of the study. II. 6. 1. Questionnaires + For students There were 43 questionnaires 1 delivered to grade 10A5, after giving the questionnaires and guiding students to do in ten minutes, the questionnaires were collected back. They were done in the ninth week, from 15th March to 20th March. + For English teachers In the ninth week, from 15th March to 20th March, questionnaires 2 were given to six English teachers of the school at the beginning of the week, and they were collected at weekend. II. 6. 2. Observation The observation was both in the mooning and in the afternoon because the grade 10 goes to school in the afternoon and some grade 11 goes to school in the mooning. During ten weeks, six observations were taken place in four different classes. These are 11A8, 10A7 of teacher Nguyen Thi Thuy Hang, 10A4 of teacher Minh Bui Thanh, and 10A9 of teacher Vo Thi Dao. The first observation was on 2nd February, class 11A8, lesson Reading in unit 12: The Asian Games. The second observation was on 3rd February, class 11A8, lesson Speaking and Listening in unit 12: The Asian Games. The third observation was on 5th February, class 10A7, lesson Writing and Language Focus in unit 12: Music. The fourth observation was on 9th March, class 11A8, lesson Writing in unit 13: Hobbies. The fifth observation was on 13th March, class 10A4, lesson Language Focus in unit 13: Films and Cinema. The sixth observation was on 25th March, class 10A9, lesson Listening in unit 14: The World Cup. Chapter Three. Result and Discussion Chapter Three has mentioned the two data collection instruments in the study: questionnaire and observation. Therefore, this chapter will go on with the information collected from the two instruments and discuss the results of the study. III. 1. Result of interview III. 1. 1. Students Question 1: 4 years 5 years 6 years _______ How long have you studied English? c C: count %%: percent c % c % c % 0 0 43 100 0 0 0 0 All of students have studied English for 5 years. Therefore, they can understand and take part in warm-up activities in learning period. Question 2: yes no Are you interested in English? c % c % 35 81,4 8 18,6 Most of students interest in English. I think teachers should have method to attract some students (8) don’t interest in English. Question 3: Very attracting attracting normal boring Very boring How is your teachers’ method? c % c % c % c % c % 5 11,63 9 20,93 29 67,44 0 0 0 0 According to students, method of teachers is normal. I think teachers should find new methods. Question 4: Kim’s game Guessing game Cross words Shark attack hangman Lucky number Matching game All Your teacher usually stars the new lesson by play _____ c % c % c % c % c % c % c % c % 7 16,28 7 16,28 8 18,6 3 6,98 1 2,33 28 65,12 21 48,84 6 13,95 Although teachers use much kind of warm-up activities, those activities aren’t various. Teachers often use “lucky number game”, so it makes boring for students. Question 5: always usually sometimes rarely never How often does your teacher begin the new lesson by games? c % c % c % c % c % 6 13,95 8 18,6 29 67,44 0 0 0 0 During to students, teachers sometimes use warm-up activities in the new lesson. In my opinion, teachers should often begin the new lesson by warm-up activities. Question 6: always often sometimes seldom Doesn’t change How often does your teacher change games? c % c % c % c % c % 7 16,28 23 53,49 13 30,23 0 0 0 0 According to result, there are 53,49% students who see their teacher often change warm-up activities. Question 7: Very interesting interesting normal bad Very bad Your teacher often gives all of you _____ games. c % c % c % c % c % 3 6,98 22 51,16 17 39,53 1 2,33 0 0 According to this table, 51,16% students see warm-up activities given by their teacher interesting. 39,53% students think them normal. Question 8: Yes, I like very much Yes, I like little No, I don’t like No, I don’t like at all Do you like playing games in learning period? c % c % c % c % 13 30,23 25 58,14 2 4,65 3 6,98 There are 25 students like warm-up activities little. Some students don’t like them. Therefore, teachers must have methods which help all of students like those activities very much. Question 9: Very excited excited normal bored Very bored How do you feel after games? c % c % c % c % c % 3 6,98 22 51,16 17 39,53 1 2,33 0 0 Question 10: Very enthusiastic enthusiastic normal bored Very bored How do you feel when you take part in games? c % c % c % c % c % 10 23,26 15 34,88 18 41,36 0 0 0 0 In two tables, warm-up activities may become familiar with students so they feel normal when they participate. However, those activities also take students excited. *In brief, via analyzing the questionnaire for the students, some common problems were found as follows: Warm-up activities aren’t various. Teachers’ methods aren’t attracting. Students’ attitude isn’t good. III. 1. 2. English teachers Question 1: always often sometimes seldom never Do you often begin the new lesson by warm-up activities? c % c % c % c % c % 0 0 6 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 As you see, 1oo% teachers often use warm-up activities to start the new lesson. Question 2: Very important important normal Not important According to you, warm-up activities are _______. c % c % c % c % 2 33,33 4 66,67 0 0 0 0 Most teachers see the important of warm-up activities in leading the new lesson and take students interested in learning English. In fact, it is important to begin the new lesson by warm-up activities because those activities help teachers lead to the new lesson and review the old lesson easier and easier. Beside, those activities help students feel comfortable and relaxed when they start learn English, hard subject. Question 3: always usually sometimes rarely never Do you often change warm-up activities in teaching period? c % c % c % c % c % 1 16,67 5 83,33 0 0 0 0 0 0 All of teachers think they often change warm-up activities in teaching period. It is necessary to do this. So teachers need finding and applying the warm-up activities more than, especially the new warm-up activities. Question 4: yes no Don’t know Do your students like teaching period of you? c % c % c % 5 83,33 0 0 1 16,67 According to teachers, their students like their teaching period. Question 5: Very enthusiastic enthusiastic normal bored Very bored How do your students feel when they join in warm-up activities? c % c % c % c % c % 1 16,67 4 66,67 1 16,67 0 0 0 0 Question 6: Very excited excited normal bored Very bored How do your students feel after games? c % c % c % c % c % 0 0 6 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 Question 7: yes no Don’t know Do your students understand the lesson when your teaching period ends? c % c % c % 6 100 0 0 0 0 According to three tables, most teachers see that all students take part in warm-up activities enthusiastic so all students feel excited when those activities end and understand the lesson more quickly and easier than Question 8: 4 minutes 5 minutes 6 minutes 7 minutes ______ According to you, how long warm-up activities last in teaching period? c % c % c % c % c % 0 0 6 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 100% teachers use warm-up activities in five minutes. Question 9: Yes No Only some students Have students paid attention to your lesson? c % c % c % 4 66,67 0 0 2 33,33 According to result, 66,67% teacher believe that their students give heed to their lesson. But there are two teachers think that only some students pay attention to their lesson. Therefore, teachers must find ways to make students take heed to the lesson. Question 10: Very hard Hard Normal Easy Very easy According to you, English is a _____ language with students. c % c % c % c % c % 1 16,67 3 50 2 33,33 0 0 0 0 As we see, English is a hard language. There are three teachers have idea like that. Beside, one teacher said: “English is very hard with students”. Two teachers think that English become normal with students. *In general, through teachers’ answers to the questions and the ideas to the problems, some common problems were found from teachers as following: There are some students not paid attentions to the lesson Some students don’t actively when participate in warm-up activities. III. 2. Result of observation Basing on the observation sheets and basic standard for teaching period, I see some problem: Warm-up activities gave by teachers very attracted but some students also don’t concentrate when take part in this activities. Some activities are very simple or teachers use pre-stage to make warm-up activities. Some kinds of activities are repeat many times, it make students feel boring. Teachers don’t used enough five minutes for those activities. III. 3. Summary This chapter presents the result of data analyzing instruments. Through questionnaires and observation the problems of the warm-up activities are took out. Chapter Four. Recommendation and Conclusion This chapter provides the conclusions of the study. Its consists of three sections such as recommendation with English teachers, students and union local, conclusions – dealing with a summary of the study, some limitations of the present study. IV.1. Conclusions The applying of renovation in education, especially the renovating in grade 10, has gained many achievements. However, there are still problems need to be solved to perfect the educational progress. One of the problems here is the warm-up activities in teaching and learning English. What are problems in Warm-up activities which teachers give for students? This study was done to find out the problems as well as the solutions for these problems. The following are the main findings of the study that lasted in ten weeks in second semester of grade 10A5 at Cai Be high school. Questionnaires 1 Purpose of the questionnaires 1 is to know the attitude of students about the warm-up activities and whether the teachers do like what they inform in the questionnaires 2 or not. Through the result, the students seen the warm-up activities is normal, they feel excited when the warm-up activities ends. Questionnaires 2 To know how teacher deal with the warm-up activities when planning, the questionnaires 2 is designed. The result shows that teachers thought the warm-up activities are an integral part of teaching period and they often used much kind of the warm-up activities to make students interested. Questionnaires 1 will help to know whether teachers do like what they answered or not. Observation The observation is to have a comparison to the questionnaires 1 and 2, whether the answers in the two questionnaires math to what the researcher see or not. Obviously, the teachers tried their best to make students interested with the warm-up activities. IV. 2. Recommendation IV. 1. 1. For English teachers English teachers should find many new warm-up activities more attracting than. English teachers need delimiting between warm-up activities and pre-stage or question leading to the lesson clearly. English need use five minutes for warm-up activities to help student more comfortable than. IV. 1. 2. For students Students should take part in this activities more actively than. They need paid attention to teachers’ lesson. IV. 1. 3. For union local Union local should organize many activities such English club, quizzes by English, meeting and cultural exchanges with foreigners. Union local has to equip some loudspeakers in all of rooms in order for teachers to teaching listening more easily than and can use many lively warm-up activities. IV. 3. Limitations The findings of the study are quantitatively based, thus it is difficult to control all variables affecting the results of the study. Research on opinions is highly subjective. Through the researcher made her best to provide an accurate analysis, some tings occurred during the study, which was beyond the researcher’s control. When the researcher observe, teachers may prepare the lesson more carefully so that researcher could not find out the problems from teachers. The time of the study was not long enough – just 10 weeks. During the time, there were too many things having to be done. The researcher had to teach, observe, thus there was not enough time to make the study perfect. The study could apply one class of grade 10 in Cai Be high school, so the number of the concerned students may be quite small. The researcher has no experiences in research as well as in designing questionnaire, and analysis. Therefore, the methodology of the study, the questionnaires, analysis, and the content of the study still contains some unexpected mistakes. The study was taken place only in Cai Be high school and there was one researcher. It would be more objective and reliable if being carried out with others teachers and in larger scope. REFERENCES 1. Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby, 1984. Games for Language Learning. Cambridge University Press. 2. Penny Ur and Andrew Wright, 1992. Five-Minute Activities, Cambridge University Press. 3. Ngo Ai Tuong. Methodology course(3) Teaching Practice, Dong Thap University, Foreign Language Department. 4. (28/01/2010). 5. (28/01/2010). 6. (11/03/2010). 7. (11/03/2010) 8. Aydan Ersoz, June 2000. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6. 9. Lee Su Kim, January - March 1995. 'Forum', Vol. 33, No. 1. 10. Yin Yong Mei and Jang Yu-Jing, 2000. Daejin University ELT Research Paper. 11. (08/02/2010) 12. (08/02/2010) 13.Nunan, D.(1992). Teaching methodology, Prentice Hall International. 14. Wajnryb, R. (1992). Classroom Observation Tasks, Cambridge University Press. APPENDIX 1 QUESTIONNAIRES (for students) 1. How long have you studied English? A. 4 years B. 5 years C. 6 years D. _____ 2. Are you interested in English? A. Yes B. No 3. How is your teachers’ method? A. Very attracting B. Attracting C. Normal D. Boring E. Very boring 4. Your teacher usually starts the new lesson by play _

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