Conceptual metaphors of love in lyrics by ed sheeran

DECLARATION BY AUTHOR . i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .ii

ABSTRACT.iii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS USED IN THE THESIS.iv

LIST OF TABLES . v

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. 1

1.1. Rationale. 1

1.2. Aims of the Study. 2

1.3. Research Questions . 3

1.4. Scope of the Study. 3

1.5. Significance of the Study . 5

1.6. Methodology. 6

1.7. Structure of the Study. 6

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW . 8

2.1. Cognitive Linguistics . 8

2.2. Metaphor Theory. 9

2.3. Conceptual Metaphors. 10

2.3.1. Conceptual Metaphor Theory . 10

2.3.2. Conceptual Metaphor Domain . 13

2.3.3. Classifications of Conceptual Metaphors. 15

2.3.3.1. Orientational Metaphors . 16

2.3.3.2. Structural Metaphors. 18

2.3.3.3. Ontological Metaphors. 19

2.4. Love. 21

2.4.1. What is Love?. 21

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the term of war or following Lakoff and Johnson: “Fighting is found everywhere in animal kingdom and nowhere so much as among human animal” (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980/2003, pp.61- 62). With Ed Sheeran LOVE is a war of two loving people against all odds the different characteristics between them (Perfect). LOVE is action of fight my corner (Give Me Love). “And that I'll fight my corner” “You know I'll fight my corner” (9) LOVE also is the war in which you must win something, as Ed Sheeran viewed here is your fear (2). They said that the most difficult war is the wining yourself by own. This means that you must be defeat yourself, conquer your fear, a hard work in war of yourself to obtain LOVE. “Love the way that you conquer your fear” (2) “Searching for a sweet surrender” (4) Thus, LOVE IS WAR in the way that: same as a war obtains the victory, a hard work which you must defend much, have plans, find the chance, kill something, etc. But sometimes if you search for “a sweet surrender” you would be success of the result of LOVE but not of war. So 33 looking the structural war from various aspects on illustrated example’s Ed Sheeran by his songs we can understand more about LOVE on this perspective. 3.5. LOVE IS POSSESSION It is said that LOVE is two people happen not third one, and a little bit selfish make the love become more interesting. Ed Sheeran shows that in love it usually has wants to possess her or his lover. “I want you to be mine, lady [] Take another step into the no-man’s land” (5) LOVE is want that a person who belongs the lover, having no one else (other person man’s land) (5). “You are my one and only” (14) When you are one and only that means you are unique, if you are my one and only (14) so you should be unique to someone, you are being unique in his because of LOVE. “Be my girl, I'll be your man” (1) LOVE is possessive in both side, not only girl but also man (1). LOVE comes from both sides, from two people in freedom, so it is not surprise if one of them wants to monopolize other one because it is LOVE. “Your heart is all I own And in your eyes you’re holding mine” (1) Physically, your heart is the most important part of human body, metaphorically your heart represents for LOVE (1), when it is owned by lover 34 by all this mean you’re holding mine (1),all thing I have that you owned all by virtue of LOVE. It is said that when you are in love you often possess your lover in both sides: soul (heart) and body, this means a person wants to belong to his lover or vice versa. 3.6. LOVE IS MADNESS LOVE IS MADNESS is a kind of conventional conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980/2003, p.119). As artist, Ed Sheeran described LOVE is seen as crazy when the sense love is very fierce, passionate so that it is out of control. “I may be crazy, don't mind me” (6) “Your thighs, your back, you drive me wild” (15) LOVE is maybe as crazy (6), drive me wild (15), which Lakoff and Johnson called as there is the ultimate lack of control (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980/2003, p.141); it is over reason which control human. And who makes this happen is (you) a lover, and other who is made madness is (me) another one (15). So we can see Ed Sheeran used LOVE is mad, out of control that often is in love of a couple. Of course it is not a disease it is only the state of emotion that loving emotion is out of control when people fall in love. Or Ed Sheeran improved that LOVE IS MADNESS is that people are crazy, drive somebody wild, make somebody mad, etc. when they in love with others. 3.7. LOVE IS FUTURE Future is what we can’t know but it will come in the next time, with LOVE future is hope, wishes. Thus, Ed Sheeran claimed that LOVE is future which he sees in lover’s eyes (1). “I see my future in your eyes” (1) 35 LOVE is also the hope of his or her future, so this means that his or her future depending on the partner although good or bad, it seems that here lover believes in other one’s LOVE or in other words the way the future to be seen or put is the way the LOVE is seen or put. “I'll put my future in you” (14) LOVE is something that will come, happen in future; is the hope, want in future. 3.8. LOVE IS SAFETY Safety in the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (eighth edition, 2010, p.1349) defined that safety is “the state of being safe and protected from danger or harm”, “The state of not being dangerous”, “A place where you are safe”. Metaphorically LOVE is safety that means it is the lover’s safe felling, the safe journeys which lovers go in love time (2), safety also is lover (10), or it may be something that is kept by lover (14) and it is only a safe place where have love beside (8). “I feel safe when you're holding me near [] “She is the lighthouse in the night that will safely guide me home” (2) “And I'll be your safety” (10) “So I can keep you safe” (14) “And I’m safe now Underneath this oak tree With you beside me” (8) In his these songs Ed Sheeran showed that, how many ways the safety is made that is how many ways LOVE is, it can be the action to be made person to feel safe, it can be the feeling of safety, a safe place, a safe guide. 36 3.9. LOVE IS CLOSENESS Following Kovecses (2002) LOVE IS CLOSENESS is “enacted” in conceptual metaphors in sculptures of two people in love, are very close to each other, making real the metaphor respectively (Kovesces, 2002, p.64). The closeness in songs of Ed Sheeran is the way of which: “To hold your body close Take another step into the no-man's land” (5) “So I hold you close to help you give it up” (10) “So am I close to you anymore if it's over?” (7) When your body (5), you (10), I (7) is close to lover, the want of closeness with lover is the first thing they can think or act when they are in love. Close (5) is that when lover want to keep other one so that his or her lover can’t fall in love with other. Close (10) is the goal that is in order to help love give some things. So LOVE is closeness in some way: for goal, to give something, or being anymore. “I feel safe when you're holding me near” (2) Closeness is that when somebody holds his lover near in order to feel safe (2), near is closeness here, a distance make somebody feel safe, or LOVE is a short distance away that make you feel safe. “With you beside me” (8) “Spent my summer time beside her” (2) Beside is next to the side of his or her lover (8), and is at the side of his or her love in time (summer time) (2). They are in the parallel, balanced position, so beside is the closeness of position more than distance. LOVE is not only closeness of distance but also closeness of position. “So I’m next to you/Then at least you’re next to me” (8) 37 Furthermore, closeness is person that is after his or her lover (8), they are closeness in order. Or in other words, LOVE is closeness in order. We can say that LOVE IS CLOSENESS in songs of Ed Sheeran is a little bit distance, distance in order, distance in position between people who are in love with each other. Besides, closeness is also the small distance to get loving person’s goals which lover often wants to do or make when they are together. 3.10. LOVE IS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF TIME Kovecses (2002) said that economic activity is the actions of selling, buying, pending, made profit, etc. (p.20). In the field of metaphor, economic activity is understood by Ed Sheeran in the songs: Heart Don’t Break around Here (2), How Would You Feel (11). “Spent my summer time beside her” (2) “I'll be taking my time, spending my life [] Every moment that I spend with you” (11) If spent in economic activity in fact is, give money to pay for goods, service, etc. In these songs of Ed Sheeran here metaphorically LOVE is structured in the economic activity of time: give time (summer time: time of a season in one year) (2), every moment (short and worth time) (11) or my time (whole time of one person) to pay for her, even thought is in my life (time of a person’s life). It is absolutely way to understand that you give time to pay for her it is the way you give LOVE to her. 3.11. LOVE IS HAPPINESS Firstly, happiness is a kind positive emotion of human (Kovecses (2002, p.23). Then “happiness also tends to correlate physically with a smile and a general feeling of expansiveness” (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980/2003, 38 p.18): Love is manifested the feelings by smile. In his works Ed Sheeran is used the happiness in interaction of lovers. “Will your eyes still smile from your cheeks? [] And, baby, your smile's forever in my mind and memory” (12) “He said something to make you laugh I saw that both your smiles were twice as wide as ours Yeah you look happier, you do [] I could try to smile to hide the truth But I know I was happier with you” (13) LOVE is happiness by the way that: first, they are said that the eyes are the window into the soul, when your eyes still smile, your smile’s forever (12) this means: a smile form the soul a; complete feelings happiness from mind, this smile is expressed on face, or being on other person’s mind and memory (a deepest place, safe place of a human). Second, laugh is considered as the sound of happy, and in this song (13) he loves a person so he makes his lover happy. Third, in this case you are in love it seems that you are happier and this feeling can be shown on loving face then other ones can feel it (13). Next, smile is not the feeling happiness, smile here is the target of happiness or it can be the happiness that the ex-lover wants to give ex-his lover by trying to show fake expression of happiness. He perhaps thinks that when he makes so, she will be happier. This is the want to bring happier for lover. 3.12. LOVE IS AN UNITY Kovecses (2002) said about relationship between unity and emotion: “Alternative conceptual metaphors may also be available for a given emotion simultaneously in a culture. This seems to be the case with two prevalent metaphors of love today: love is a unity” (Kovesces, 2002, p.223). LOVE IS UNITY can be come from the ideal that, each UNITY is a part of love, this 39 “ideal love” (Kovesces, 2002, p.223) is considered as traditional ideal of love. In UNI song, Ed Sheeran was considered love as a complete which can’t break down. “I never want to settle down, come around Break up the love like Lego now” (7) Love here consists of parts like as a Lego which can be broken up apart from, and it is not the want that lovers wish for. Commonly, Love is something that could be broken into several pieces, makes it something that is not a complete unit. 3.13. LOVE IS A DESIRE Desire is known as a strong feeling of wanting to have something or wishing for something to happen. Kovecses (2002) he defined Desire as a force, not just a physical one but a physiological force like hunger or thirst (p.23). It is said that desire is as a physiological force of love, when they are in love, they always want to have some thing or to wish for something from lovers. In his songs Ed Sheeran described the desire of love as lover want something which is substance, lover want to do something, it found in the songs: Sing (5), Shape of You (6), Give Me Love (9), and How Would You Feel (11). “I want you to be mine, lady” (5) In the Sing the desire of lover which is possession of his lover or he wants that lover belongs to him, he wishes to be owner of his lover. “Girl, you know I want your love” (6) 40 LOVE is regarded as DESIRE when a man wants to love from his lover; he desires the feelings of love from his girl, to be loved. It seems that it is the most commonly when they are fall in love. “All I want is the taste that your lips allow” (9) Love comes from both sides of lovers, you love and to be loved, this means love is when you love a person and you are allowed by his. In Give Me Love all things that lover wants that is the permission from his lover. “How would you feel, if I told you I loved you? It's just something that I want to do [] So tell me that you love me too” (11) When you are in love, you have lot of things you want to do, one of them maybe is talking about his feelings with his lover. That is confirmed from both lover and his lover by word. LOVE IS A DESIRE that is something a person wants to do with his lover, possesses his lover, has the permission form his lover and the confirmation from lovers by words. 3.14. Chapter Summary Looking at Table 2 we see: This chapter studies thirteen kinds of Structural Metaphors in Ed Sheeran fifteen songs’ lyrics. In particular, how conceptual metaphor of LOVE is mapped: 41 LOVE IS A JOURNEY, which journey that we must come and take part in, have lead, go until have finish, have plan, to experience difficulties, have destination, discover the new, study something else, have vehicle, travel back time, be kind of journey, stay together for evermore, go destination. LOVE IS FIRE: when fire here is flames, the fuel of flame or that is the way flame burns bright. LOVE IS PAIN: that is when love is the source of pain, when lovers hurt each other. LOVE IS WAR: such as fighting, conquer, searching for surrender, having plan, find the chance, kill something. LOVE IS POSSESSION: this is the way which is lover want to possess his or her lover. S tru ctu ral M etap h o rs 3.1 LOVE IS A JOURNEY 3.2 LOVE IS FIRE 3.3 LOVE IS PAIN 3.4 LOVE IS WAR 3.5 LOVE IS POSSESSION 3.6 LOVE IS MADNESS 3.7 LOVE IS FUTURE 3.8 LOVE IS SAFETY 3.9 LOVE IS CLOSENESS 3.10 LOVE IS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF TIME 3.11 LOVE IS HAPPINESS 3.12 LOVE IS AN UNITY 3.13 LOVE IS A DESIRE Table 2: List of Structural Metaphors in lyrics of Ed Sheeran’s fifteen songs 42 LOVE IS MADNESS: is the out of control in love that makes lovers become crazy or drive them wild. LOVE IS FUTURE: following the way that lover is other’s future, is the future in lover’s eyes. LOVE IS SAFETY: in the case, it is the feelings of safety when a person getting from lover or when a person keeps his lover safety, otherwise the being of a person is still the safety of his lover. LOVE IS CLOSENESS: this is the distance a person wants to be close to lover in all positions, it is often a tiny space such as: near, next, beside. LOVE IS ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF TIME: in this way the structure of economic activity of time structures the love, LOVE here is the expression of spent time (short time summer, long time my life, all time every moment) for lover LOVE IS HAPPINESS: or in other words love make lover smile, happy, laugh following the way that the smile of deep soul (smile of eyes), the smile engraves in the mind and memory or the action of smile to hide something which is the truth, even more it is just lover’s smiles. LOVE IS AN UNITY: love is all parts which can be divided, so Love could be broken into several pieces, makes it something that is not a complete unit. LOVE IS A DESIRE: following the way that: LOVE is something that: a person wants to do with his lover, possesses his lover, has the permission form his lover, has the confirmation from lovers by words. In which, LOVE IS A JOURNEY is used the most of selected songs of Ed Sheeran and LOVE IS AN UNITY is use at least (see more in Table 3). 43 S SM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 3.1           3.2     3.3    3.4     3.5    3.6   3.7   3.8     3.9      3.10   3.11   3.12  3.13     S: 15 Songs of Ed Sheeran in ordered number (see Table 1) SM: Structural Metaphors in lyrics of Ed Sheeran’s fifteen songs (following number sections of chapter 3) : having metaphor Table 3: Structural Metaphors in lyrics of Ed Sheeran’s fifteen songs 44 CHAPTER 4: ONTOLOGICAL METAPHORS OF LOVE IN THE SELECTED LYRICS BY ED SHEERAN 4.1. LOVE IS AN OBJECT Following Lakoff and Johnson (1980/2003) said about object our basic understanding is come from our experience of physical objects (pp.25-26), so we often depending on this experience of physical objects to mapping to understand others. It maybe objects is have shape, bound, characteristic, etc., is considered as the original experiences commonly. It is also close to our understanding in life, being objectively. LOVE IS AN OBJECT (AN VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE OBJECT) LOVE IS AN OBJECT has seen as one conventional conceptual metaphor which we can find out, hold, sell, give, etc., as if having shape, form, feature. Here, you can see the objects Ed Sheeran used to metaphor is a love (1) a thing you can find somewhere, a person such as mine (1), me (2,3, 9), you (10, 8), your heart (3) that it can be hold in some ways, or LOVE is a thing which made by lover’s hand (6), especial for somebody: me. LOVE is also a thing that you can hold (1, 2, 3, 10, 15, 14, 8), hold by both of hands such as your heart (3), you can give to someone me (9). “I found a love for me [] And in your eyes you're holding mine” (1) “I feel safe when you’re holding me” (2) “I wanna hold your heart in both hands [] 45 And you don't hold me anymore” (3) “Your love was handmade for somebody like me” (6) “Give me love like her” (9) "So I hold you close to help you give it up” (10) I'll hold ya and you'll think of him” (15) “And I'll hold you tightly” (14) “And let me hold you?” (8) “She is the lighthouse in the night that will safely guide me home” (2) LOVE is also considered as an object (a visible thing which can see by sight) such as a sign which has directional effect to someone when they look at this they will find out the safe way to go destination home (2). LOVE can be a visible object, besides LOVE also can be the invisible object. So LOVE is an object, an invisible object, LOVE is a thing, goods, body, people, handmade, heart that is hold by someone, is given to other, belongs other one, or is used to do something. LOVE IS AN OBJECT (AN OCEAN) Ocean is known as physical existence to be built by nature. Its area is largest and deepest in the surface of earth, it is the reason that this is used to compare with Love in ancient poetry and literature. Besides, the fact that ocean is the resource to nourish a lot of animals, to be also the resource of lot of natural disaster to harm, kill animals. So we see: on the one side it is difficult to resist the attraction of ocean, on the other side ocean is dangerous 46 because of being of natural disaster. LOVE is ocean this means: Love is vast expanded large, deep, danger, but attraction. “So we’ll learn to swim in the oceans you made []. And I’ll drown within the oceans you made” (15) In the song Shirtsleeves Ed Sheeran considered LOVE is the same as oceans which are made by you (15) a person to the lover, where the lover can voluntarily learn to swim and to be drowned in these oceans. In this case, Ed Sheeran used the danger and attraction of oceans to map on LOVE, LOVE is the same as oceans this means Love has characteristics of oceans following the way that: Love is very dangerous, and although you knew that but you still come into, because its attractions make you forget this danger. Thus LOVE is dangerous to him, even death but he still felt voluntarily, he still wanted to try learning how to swim on it. 4.2. LOVE IS A PERSON (GIRL, WOMAN, DOCTOR) Following Lakoff and Johnson (1980) it is may be that the most obvious ontological metaphors are personification (personification is where physical object is further specified as being a person) (p.33), this mean that we can understand various experiences with nonhuman motivations, characteristics and activities in the terms of human’s. In this opinion, Kovecses (2002) was regarded personification as a form of ontological metaphor; this meant the human qualities are given to human entities (p.39). So we see, if LOVE as a person, LOVE would be action, think, etc. following person do. LOVE IS A PERSON (GIRL, WOMAN), When LOVE IS A PERSON (GIRL, WOMAN), by this way LOVE is personification as she this mean the LOVE has characteristics as female person. 47 “I found a love for me Darling, just dive right in and follow my lead Well, I found a girl, beautiful and sweet [] Well, I found a woman, stronger than anyone I know She shares my dreams, I hope that someday I’ll share her home I found a love to carry more than just my secrets” (1) Particularly, in the Ed Sheeran’s songs he described LOVE as a girl or a woman, who is beautiful and sweet or strongest person in I (1) a person’s knowledge, LOVE here acts as people: share and to be shared materially and emotionally. “She is the lighthouse in the night that will safely guide me home” (2) And in (2) the simile She as the lighthouse is metaphorically as LOVE; the lighthouse in the night, to do the action of guiding safe for me (2) to come home. In a different way, we can understand that she is the same as a sign, which is have the effect of guiding lover to home (see 4.2) In this work, metaphorically LOVE as beautiful, sweet, and strong female person acts as human being such as: share, wait, carry, the hope of future, etc. (1). Having transitive property in this case, a person found a love he meant that he found a girl or woman. All things he found and hoped a LOVE this is all things belonged the girl: surface, actions, etc. in this song. LOVE IS A PERSON (DOCTOR). A doctor is a person who can take care of health for patients, to treat disease. A person wants to become a doctor he must spend a long time for studying medicine, physical and have experienced in his major. Then he must be tested and recognized by professional, other experts. Looking at the whole, LOVE and DOCTOR is two concepts in individual fields. But on one side, 48 LOVE is concern with mind, thought, etc., one aspect of physical that doctor can treat. “Love will scar your make up” (3) In the song Drunk, Ed Sheeran used ontological metaphor of love as a person: a doctor, who treats disease (scar your make up). There is personification in this case, when LOVE is a doctor it means that LOVE is regarded as having ability, skill, knowledge of a doctor, a doctor for especial disease: which disease is made by LOVE. In other words, LOVE is personified as DOCTOR or LOVE has the characteristics or functions of DOCTOR. 4.3. LOVE IS A CONTAINER Lakoff and Johnson (1980) claimed that there are “various kinds of states may also be conceptualized as container” (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980/2003, p.31). In this occasion “the state is viewed as a container, and the act or event is viewed as an object that emerges from the container” (Lakoff and Johnson, 1980/2003, p.75). In this kind, there is a change of state when the act or event is view as object does action of state. This kind of metaphor is used generally in life, especially in which happens have concern with LOVE. LOVE IS A CONTAINER (STATE CONTAINER). This kind of metaphor is a part of structure of Ed Sheeran’s songs, example: in I Am A Mess, Kiss Me, Thinking Out Loud song. LOVE here is a container, thus it had not real boundary but having imagined boundary which we viewed as container. And the act of fall is changed the state, object here is human beings emerges from the container. “But for tonight I wanna' fall in love” (4) “This feels like falling in love Falling in love 49 We're falling in love” (10) “And baby, my heart could still fall as hard at 24 And I'm thinking 'bout how people fall in love in mysterious ways Maybe just the touch of a hand Well, me—I fall in love with you every single day” (12) Object can be human or abstract concept (feelings): I, this feels, we, people, my heart (4, 10, 12), it means: the feeling of love can come from one side or both side of lovers, it is also come from all people by one way or mysterious ways. It is clear that in Thinking Out Loud, Ed Sheeran gave the how way people fall in love or we can understand: how many way people fall in love is how many way the actions fall (falling) do. The action of fall is state, LOVE here is covered by imagined bounder for act of fall to be happen in direction (in-out), so LOVE IS CONTAINER. In fact, this kind of metaphor is used so much, most people used it in everyday language and some of them even don’t realize that it is metaphor. LOVE IS A CONTAINER (CONTAINER OBJECT). The same as: LOV

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