Recommendation systems based on statistical implicative measures

When predicting the rating given by the user 𝑢𝑎 to the item 𝑖,

we consider the items that were rated by 𝑢𝑎 are the potential

nearest neighbors of 𝑖. Each nearest neighbor 𝑖𝑗 has the different

effect on 𝑖. This value can be measured by the interestingness of

relationship (𝑖𝑗, 𝑖). The confidence measure is used to calculate

the strength of relationship using the examples 𝑛𝑖𝑗𝑖 whereas the

implicative intensity is used for calculating the surprisingness of

relationship using the counter-examples 𝑛𝑖𝑗𝑖̅. If two relationships

(𝑖𝑗1, 𝑖) and (𝑖𝑗2, 𝑖) have the same confidence value, we use the

surprisingness value and otherwise. Therefore, these two

measures can be combined toghether to clearly distinguish the

effect of each neighbor 𝑖𝑗 on 𝑖. Chapter 4 also uses the nearest

neighbors as Chapter 3 but its neighbors is the items; is also based

on items as Chapter 2 but it just considers the relationship of two

items instead of a set of items and one item

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the followings. Chapter 1: An overview of statistical implicative measures and recommendation systems. Chapter 2: Recommendation based on statistical implicative measures and association rules. Chapter 3: Recommendation based on users implicative rating measure. Chapter 4: Recommendation based on items implicative rating measure. Appendices include: (1) Interestingness tool and DKHP dataset; (2) Algorithms used for developing and evaluating the proposed recommendation models; and (3) Some additional experiment scenarios. 4 CHAPTER 1. AN OVERVIEW 1.1. Statistical implicative measures 1.1.1. Definition Statistical implicative measures (SIM) are measures proposed by the statistical implicative analysis method. SIMs are used to detect trends in a binary attribute set or non-binary attribute set. SIMs are asymmetric, probability based and non-linear measures. 1.1.2. Statistical implicative measures for binary data 1.1.3. Statistical implicative measures for non-binary data 1.2. Statistical implicative ratings Statistical implicative rating measures is proposed by the thesis using some existing SIMs. We can consider these measures as SIMs. Statistical implicative rating measures are used to predict the rating of a user for an item; thereby contributing to solving recommendation problems. 1.3. Recommendation based on statistical implicative analysis 1.3.1. Recommendation systems and research directions 1.3.2. Collaborative filtering technique 1.3.2.1. Memory based methods 1.3.2.2. Model based methods 1.3.3. Evaluating recommendation systems 1.3.3.1. K-fold cross validation method 1.3.3.2. Classification accuracy metrics 1.3.3.3. Predictive accuracy metrics 5 1.3.3.4. Rank accuracy metrics 1.3.4. Statistical implicative analysis based recommendation 1.3.4.1. Existing recommendation methods 1.3.4.2. Recommendation based on statistical implicative measures 1.4. Conclusion Chapter 1 focuses on obtaining the understanding on SIMs, RSs and the accuracy metrics used for evaluating RSs. The thesis summarizes SIMs (such as implicative intensity, entropic version of implicative intensity, cohesion, contribution) and identify which measures should be used by RSs and to improve the accuracy of recommendation result. Besides, Chapter 1 also focuses on the collaborative filtering technique and the accuracy metrics to be used for building and evaluating recommendation models. Moreover, Chapter 1 also presents the research directions on RSs as well as the existing research related to RSs based on statistical implicative analysis; then identify the scope of study and sketch the proposal. 6 CHAPTER 2. RECOMMENDATION BASED ON STATISTICAL IMPLICATIVE MEASURES AND ASSOCIATION RULES Differing from the existing recommendation models based on the statistical implicative analysis (SIA) and association rules, the proposed model of this chapter: Can be applied on both binary and non-binary data; provides more SIMs (such as implicative intensity, entropic version of implicative intensity, cohesion) to make the recommendation; and enables to combine one of the above measure with the contribution measure to improve the accuracy of RSs. 2.1. Statistical implicative rules based model - SIR The statistical implicative rules based model SIR is developed on SIMs and association rules. The proposed model SIR is shown in Figure 2.1. This model consists of: - A finite set of users 𝑈 = {𝑢1, 𝑢2, , 𝑢𝑛}. - A finite set of items (e.g. products, movies, etc.) 𝐼 = {𝑖1, 𝑖2, , 𝑖𝑚}. - A rating matrix 𝑅 = (𝑟𝑗𝑘)𝑛x𝑚 where 𝑗 = 1. . 𝑛 and 𝑘 = 1. . 𝑚 to be used for storing the feedback (ratings) of users on items. In binary form, 𝑟𝑗𝑘 = 1 if user 𝑢𝑗 likes the item 𝑖𝑘 and 𝑟𝑗𝑘 = 0 (or 𝑁𝐴) if 𝑢𝑗 does not like/know 𝑖𝑘. In non-binary form, 𝑟𝑗𝑘 ∈ [0,1] if 𝑢𝑗 rates 𝑖𝑘 and 𝑟𝑗𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 if 𝑢𝑗 does not rate/know 𝑖𝑘. - A vector 𝑅𝑢𝑎storing the known ratings of the user 𝑢𝑎 who needs the recommendation. 𝑅𝑢𝑎 = {𝑟𝑢𝑎𝑘} where 𝑘 = 1, 𝑚 ̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ ; in which, 𝑟𝑢𝑎𝑘 = 𝑁𝐴 if 𝑢𝑎 does not rate 𝑖𝑘. 7 Figure 2.1: The statistical implicative rules based model. To reduce the recommendation time, the SIR model in Figure 2.1 is improved by combining the follows simultaneously (directly): Generating association rules, presenting those rules by the set of four values {𝑛, 𝑛𝑎 , 𝑛𝑏 , 𝑛𝑎�̅�}, calculating the implicative value of those rules according to a specific SIM. We can solve this problem by using and modifying the rchic package. (𝑢𝑎, I, 𝑅𝑢𝑎) (U, I, R) Support threshold s Confidence threshold c Implicative intensity, Entropic version of implicative Cohesion measure Maximum length of a rule l {𝑎 → 𝑏 | 𝑎 ∈ 𝐼𝑘 , 𝑏 ∈ 𝐼, 𝑘 = 1, 𝑙 − 1̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ ̅} The ruleset is presented by the statistical implicative analysis method {𝑎 → 𝑏} = {𝑛, 𝑛𝑎 , 𝑛𝑏 , 𝑛𝑎�̅�} {𝑎 → 𝑏} = {𝑣𝑎,𝑏} Contribution measure List of good items to be recommended to 𝑢𝑎 Improved model: Combining these ones simultaneously 8 2.2. Operation of the statistical implicative rules based model The operation of SIR model includes two stages: Building the filtered ruleset presented according to the SIA method; and performing the recommendation as shown in Figure 2.2. To reduce the recommendation time, we can pre-built the learning model (offline). Figure 2.2: The operational diagram of the SIR model. 2.3. Experiment 2.3.1. Data and tool Three data sets used for the experiment are MSWeb, MovieLens and DKHP (course registration). In which, MSWeb i1 i2 im u1 r11 NA r1m u2 NA r21 r2m un r11 rn2 NA Pre-processing data Inputs Ratings of user who requires the recommendation R atin g m atrix Generating rules Filtering rules Building model (online/offline) Presenting rules according to SIA The list of top N items ua {i1, i13,, im-2} Recommend- ing items with the highest implicative values Making recommendation (online) i1 i2 im-1 im ua NA ra2 ram-1 NA 9 and DKHP are binary datasets and MovieLens is a non-binary dataset. We developed the Interestingnesslab tool to conduct the experimental scenarios. Besides, some recommendation models of the recommenderlab package are used for comparing with the SIR model. These models are: The association rule based on model (AR); the item based collaborative filtering model (IBCF) using Jaccard measure; the popular model (POPULAR). The experimental scenarios are run on the computers with the following configurations: (1) Window 8 OS, 16 GB RAM, and Intel Pentium G630 2.7GHz processor; and (2) Windows 10 OS, 8 GB RAM, and Intel Core i5-6200U 2.5GHz CPU processor. 2.3.2. Evaluating the SIR model on binary data The accuracy of the SIR model is compared with that of some existing models by the 5-folds cross validation method and the classification accuracy metrics (via Precision - Recall curve, ROC curve and the F1 measure combining the precision and the recall). The experimental results show that: - The simultaneous combination of steps at the learning stage (in the improved SIR model) reduces the recommendation time. - The accuracy of SIR model is the highest when the entropic version of implicative intensity and the contribution measure are combined together to make the recommendation. - The accuracy of the SIR model combining the entropic version of implicative intensity and the contribution measure is higher than that of the compared recommendation models (AR, POPULAR, IBCF); Especially, when the user requiring the recommendation is not a new user (i.e. the number of items that were rated by that user, the number of known ratings, is not too low). 10 2.3.2. Evaluating the SIR model on non-binary data - The accuracy of SIR model is the highest when (1) the entropic version of implicative intensity and the contribution measure are combined together and the user does require many recommended items. In reality, the user will be confused by a lot of items to be recommended. - The accuracy of SIR model is higher than that of POPULAR - a recommendation model based on the most popular items. 2.4. Conclusion Chapter 2 proposes the statistical implicative rules based model SIR applied on both binary and non-binary data; and improves the proposed model to reduce the recommendation time. The ruleset represented by a set of four values can be pre-built offline and used online when someone needs recommendation. The SIR model provides many SIMs and can be expanded by providing other objective interestingness measures. The SIR model is coded and integrated in the Interestingnesslab tool. The accuracy of SIR model is evaluated: By the classification accuracy metrics such as ROC curve, Precision - Recall curve and F1 measure; on two types of data: Binary (MSWeb, DKHP) and non-binary (MovieLens); according to two groups of scenarios: Internal comparison (using the same SIR model but the different SIMs) and external comparison (the SIR model and some existing recommendation models: AR, POPULAR and IBCF). The experimental results show that the SIR model should: (1) combine the entropic version of implicative intensity with the contribution measure to make the recommendation; (2) be used to build RSs because the accuracy of SIR model is higher than that of compared models. 11 CHAPTER 3. RECOMMENDATION BASED ON USERS IMPLICATIVE RATING MEASURE The SIR model of Chapter 2 uses the association rules and SIMs to recommend the list of good items to users. When the number of rules is too large, the SIR model and the existing models - also based the SIA and the association rules - have to face some disadvantages: The recommendation time may be long if the learning stage is performed online; and the computer may be overloaded. Therefore, the thesis takes attention to the rules with length of 2 to overcome those disadvantages. Besides, the rating given by 𝑢𝑎 (a user requires the recommendation) to the item 𝑖 maybe similar to the ratings given to 𝑖 by the nearest users (neighbors) of 𝑢𝑗. Moreover, each item owns the contribution to the relationship of 𝑢𝑎 and his/her nearest user 𝑢𝑗. As a result, the thesis combines the above characteristics to improve the accuracy of recommendation. 3.1. KnnUIR Definition The k nearest neighbors (i.e. users) based implicative rating measure 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝑈𝐼𝑅 is proposed to predict the rating given by a user 𝑢𝑎 for an item 𝑖 ∈ 𝐼 . The purpose of this proposal is to increase the recommendation accuracy. 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝑈𝐼𝑅 - defined by (3.1) - is based on: (1) the number of nearest users of 𝑢𝑎 - 𝑘𝑛𝑛 (the nearest neighbors 𝑢𝑗 are identified by the implicative intensities of 𝑢𝑎 and 𝑢𝑗); (2) the ratings of item 𝑖 that were rated by those neighbors - 𝑟𝑢𝑗𝑖; (3) the typicality of 𝑖 contributing to the relationship of 𝑢𝑎 and 𝑢𝑗 - 𝛾(𝑖, 𝑢𝑎 → 𝑢𝑗) . The value of 12 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝑈𝐼𝑅(𝑢𝑎 , 𝑖) has to be transformed to the range [0, 1] - the same scale as elements of rating matrix. 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝑈𝐼𝑅(𝑢𝑎, 𝑖) = ∑ 𝑟𝑢𝑗𝑖 ∗ 𝛾(𝑖, 𝑢𝑎 → 𝑢𝑗) 𝑘𝑛𝑛 𝑗=1 (3.1) 3.2. Users implicative rating based model - UIR The users implicative rating based model UIR is developed by using the proposed KnnUIR measure and the user based collaborative filtering method. The UIR model shown in Figure 3.1 has the same components as the SIR model. However, this UIR model not only predicts the rating given by a user to an item but also recommends the list of top items to a user. Figure 3.1: The users implicative rating based model. 3.3. Operation of the users implicative rating based model The operational diagram of the UIR model is presented in Figure 3.2. (𝑢𝑎, I, 𝑅𝑢𝑎) (U, I, R) Implicative intensity 𝑢𝑎 x U  {𝜑(𝑢𝑎 , 𝑢𝑗), 𝑗 = 1, 𝑘𝑛𝑛̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ } K nearest neighbors/users based implicative rating measure (KnnUIR) 𝑢𝑎 x I  𝑅𝑢𝑎 ′ Reclist={𝑖 |𝑖 ∈ 𝐼, 𝑟𝑢𝑎𝑖 ′ ∈ 𝑇𝑜𝑝𝑁} 13 Figure 3.2: The operational diagram of the UIR model. 3.4. Experiment 3.4.1. Data and tool The Interestingnesslab tool with the proposed UIR model; the MSWeb, DKHP and MovieLens datasets; the recommenderlab Presenting the relationship of ua and uj where ujU according to SIA and calculating the implicative intensity of (ua, uj) Ratings of user who requires the recommendation i1 i2 im u1 r11 NA r1m u2 NA r22 r2m un rn1 rn2 NA Pre-processing data Rating matrix The list of top N items ua {i1, i13, im-2} Predicted ratings i1 i2 im ua r’a1 r’i2 r’am Calculating the typicality of i contributing to the relationship (ua, uj) Predicting the rating given by ua for iI using KnnUIR Recommending items with the highest predicted ratings toua i1 i2 im-1 im ua NA ra2 ram-1 NA Finding the k nearest neighbors of ua Recommend? No Yes Preparing for calculating the KnnUIR value Recommending Inputs Outputs 14 package with existing models (POPULAR, IBCF, AR, UBCF, ALS_Implicit and SVD); and the computers (as described in Section 2.3.1) are also used for the experiment of this chapter. 3.4.2. Evaluating the UIR model using the classification accuracy metrics - The accuracy of the proposed UIR model (via Precision - Recall curve, ROC curve and the F1 measure) is higher than that of the AR, IBCF and POPULAR models but not much higher than that of the UBCF model. - The accuracy of the UIR model is lower than that of the SIR model (Chapter 2) if the user requiring the recommendation is a new user (given = 1), the number of nearest users and the number of good items to be recommended are low. 3.4.3. Evaluating the UIR model using the predictive accuracy metrics - The contribution of an item to the relationship of two users increases the recommendation accuracy. - The accuracy of the proposed UIR model is higher than that of the UBCF model (i.e. the mean absolute error MAE and the root mean squared error RMSE are lowest) if the user requiring the recommendation is not a new user. In the opposite case, the accuracy of the UIR model still higher than that of UBCF model if the number of nearest neighbors to be used for predicting ratings is high. 3.4.4. Evaluating the UIR model using the rank accuracy metrics The experiment is conducted for the case where the active user rated a few of items and requires a few of recommended 15 items. The experimental result shows that the accuracy of the proposed UIR model (via the nDCG metric) is higher than that of the UBCF, ALS_Implicit and SVD models if the knn>=30. 3.5. Conclusion Chapter 3 proposes a new measure - called KnnUIR - that predicts a user's rating for an item. KnnUIR is developed from two SIMs - the typicality and the implicative intensity. KnnUIR incorporates many factors affecting the predicted ratings such as the nearest neighbors, the ratings that were rated by those neighbors, and the contribution of an item to the relationship of user requiring the recommendation and his/her nearest neighbors. Besides, Chapter 3 proposes a new recommendation model - named UIR - using KnnUIR and the user based collaborative filtering method. The accuracy of the proposed UIR model is evaluated by: The classification accuracy metrics (for binary data), the predictive accuracy metrics (for non-binary data) and the rank accuracy metrics (for both binary and non-binary data); the group of internal comparison scenarios (UIR and SIR) and the group of external comparison scenarios (UIR and the existing models: AR, IBCF, POPULAR, ALS_Implicit, UBCF, SVD). Experimental results show that the accuracy of the UIR model: (1) is higher when considering the contribution of items in relationship of a user and his/her neighbor; and (2) is the higher than that of the compared existing models when the number of known ratings of user who needs the recommendation is not too low (i.e. that user is not a new user). Moreover, the experimental results also show that the accuracy of UIR model is lower than that of proposed SIR model in the case of new users. 16 CHAPTER 4. RECOMMENDATION BASED ON ITEMS IMPLICATIVE RATING MEASURE When predicting the rating given by the user 𝑢𝑎 to the item 𝑖, we consider the items that were rated by 𝑢𝑎 are the potential nearest neighbors of 𝑖. Each nearest neighbor 𝑖𝑗 has the different effect on 𝑖. This value can be measured by the interestingness of relationship (𝑖𝑗, 𝑖). The confidence measure is used to calculate the strength of relationship using the examples 𝑛𝑖𝑗𝑖 whereas the implicative intensity is used for calculating the surprisingness of relationship using the counter-examples 𝑛𝑖𝑗𝑖̅. If two relationships (𝑖𝑗1, 𝑖) and (𝑖𝑗2, 𝑖) have the same confidence value, we use the surprisingness value and otherwise. Therefore, these two measures can be combined toghether to clearly distinguish the effect of each neighbor 𝑖𝑗 on 𝑖. Chapter 4 also uses the nearest neighbors as Chapter 3 but its neighbors is the items; is also based on items as Chapter 2 but it just considers the relationship of two items instead of a set of items and one item. 4.1. KnnIIR Definition The k nearest neighbors (i.e. items) based implicative rating measure 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝐼𝐼𝑅 is proposed to predict the rating given by a user 𝑢𝑎 for an item 𝑖 ∈ 𝐼 ; thereby increasing the recommendation accuracy. 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝐼𝐼𝑅 is developed by the ratings of 𝑢𝑎 for items 𝑖𝑗 (𝑖𝑗 can be seen as one of potential nearest neighbors of 𝑖) and the strength of relationship between each neighbor 𝑖𝑗 and the item 𝑖 using the confidence value 𝑐(𝑖𝑗, 𝑖) and one of SIM values - such as the implicative intensity 𝜑(𝑖𝑗 , 𝑖) or the cohesion value 𝑐𝑜ℎ(𝑖𝑗 , 𝑖) or the entropic version of implicative intensity 𝜙(𝑖𝑗, 𝑖). 17 As a result, 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝐼𝐼𝑅 not only consideres the examples 𝑛𝑖𝑗𝑖 of relationship 𝑖𝑗, 𝑖 but also considers the counter-examples 𝑛𝑖𝑗𝑖̅ of this relationship. 𝐾𝑛𝑛𝐼𝐼𝑅(𝑢𝑎, 𝑖) = ∑ 𝑟𝑢𝑎𝑖𝑗 ∗ 𝑣𝑖𝑗𝑖 𝑘𝑛𝑛 𝑗=1 (4.1) 𝑣𝑖𝑗𝑖 = [ 𝜑(𝑖𝑗, 𝑖) ∗ 𝑐(𝑖𝑗 , 𝑖) 𝑐𝑜ℎ(𝑖𝑗, 𝑖) ∗ 𝑐(𝑖𝑗 , 𝑖) 𝜙(𝑖𝑗, 𝑖) ∗ 𝑐(𝑖𝑗, 𝑖) (4.2) 4.2. Items implicative rating based model - IIR The items implicative rating based model IIR is shown in Figure 4.1. Figure 4.1: The items implicative rating based model. Similar to the models of Chapter 2 and Chapter 3, the proposed IIR model also has a finite user set, a finite item set, a rating matrix, a vector with the ratings already rated by user requiring the recommendation, and a vector with the predicted ratings. Differing from the models of the previous chapters, the IIR model uses the item matrix V to store the values 𝑣𝑗𝑘 to carry (𝑢𝑎, I, 𝑅𝑢𝑎) (U, I, R) Confidence measure, Implicative intensity, Entropic version of implicative intensity, Cohesion measure I x I  𝑉 = {𝑣𝑗𝑘| 𝑗, 𝑘 = 1, 𝑘𝑛𝑛̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ ̅̅ } K nearest neighbors/items based implicative rating measure (KnnIIR) 𝑢𝑎 x I  𝑅𝑢𝑎 ′ Reclist={𝑖 |𝑖 ∈ 𝐼, 𝑟𝑢𝑎𝑖 ′ ∈ 𝑇𝑜𝑝𝑁} 18 out the recommendation. Matrix V can be built directly or indirectly. In the indirect form, we generate a set of rules (similar to Chapter 2) but only consider rules with length of 2, the thresholds of support and confidence to be 0; then convert this ruleset to the item matrix. However, compared to the direct method, this approach can increase the recommendation time as well as depends on the tools used for generating rules. Besides, the V matrix can be built online or offline. When the number of items and the size of the dataset is large, the recommendation time can be shortened if we pre-build the V matrix (offline) and store it in a file. 4.3. Operation of the items implicative rating based model The operational diagram of the IIR model is depicted in Figure 4.2. 4.4. Experiment 4.4.1. Data and tool Chapter 4 also uses the datasets and tool used by the SIR and UIR models. 4.4.2. Evaluating the IIR model using the classification accuracy metrics - Building the item matrix directly can reduce the recommendation time and does not depend on the tools used for generating rules. - The accuracy of IIR model (via Precision - Recall curve, ROC curve and the F1 measure) is the highest when the implicative intensity is used for building the item matrix and knn is the number of items of the dataset. 19 - The accuracy of the IIR model is higher than that of the compared recommendation models (AR, POPULAR, IBCF, SIR) when the user requiring the recommendation is not a new user. Figure 4.2: The operational diagram of the IIR model. 4.4.3. Evaluating the IIR model using the predictive accuracy metrics - The accuracy of the IIR model (via MAE and RMSE) is the highest when knn is the number of items of the dataset; and the entropy version of implicative intensity is used for building the i1 i2 im u1 r11 NA r1m u2 NA r21 r2m un r11 rn2 NA Pre-processing data Rating matrix i1 im i1 NA v1m im v11 NA Ratings of user who requires the recommendation Building the item matrix Building the item matrix with knn neighbors Filtering the matrix to obtain knn neighbors The list of top N items ua {i1, i13,, im-2} Predicted ratings i1 i2 im ua r’a1 r’a2 r’am Recommending items with the highest predicted ratings Predicting ratings using KnnIIR Making the recommendation No Yes Inputs Outputs Recommend? i1 i2 im-1 im ua NA ra2 ram-1 NA 20 item matrix if a user only rated a few items and the cohesion measure otherwise. - The accuracy of the IIR model is higher than that of the IBCF model if a user requiring the recommendation already rated many items. 4.4.4. Evaluating the IIR model using the rank accuracy metrics The accuracy of IIR model (via nDCG) is higher than that of the IBCF, ALS_Implicit models if the active user rated a few of items and requires a few of recommended items. 4.5. Comparing the proposed models If dataset in binary form, the SIR model is suitable for the case in which the active user rated a few of items whereas the IIR model fits for the other cases. Besides, if the recommendation time is taken into account, the UIR model can be used instead of the SIR model. If the data in non-binary form, the accuracy of UIR model is higher than that of IIR model. 4.6. Conclusion Chapter 4 proposes a new measure (named KnnIIR) developed from the relationship of two items to predict ratings; and the IIR model using the proposed measure to recommend a list of good items to a user or predict the rating given by a user to an item. The proposed IIR model is improved by building the item matrix directly. This reduces the recommendation time and avoid the reliance on the tool used for generating rules. The accuracy of IIR model is also evaluated: On both binary and non- binary data; according to the classification accuracy metrics, the predictive accuracy metrics and the rank accuracy metric. The 21 experimental results show that the IIR model should: (1) use the implicative intensity if data in binary form or the combination of the entropic version and the cohesion measure if data in non- binary form to build the item matrix; (2) be used to build RSs because of the high accuracy. In addition, the experimental results also show that: (1) the combination between the confidence value and the implicative value of two items improves the recommendation result; and (2) the accuracy of IIR model is lower than that of the SIR in the case of new user. 22 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS Results of the study - Identifying the statistical implicative measures to be used for RSs; then proposing and improving the recommendation model based on SIMs and association rules to recommend the good items to users. - Proposing a new measure KnnUIR based on the nearest users and some SIMs, and then proposing a new recommendation model UIR using this measure. The proposed model can predict the ratings given by a user to items and recommend the good items to users. - Proposing a new measure KnnIIR based on the nearest items and some SIMs, and then proposing a new recommendation model IIR using the proposed measure. - Developing the Interestingness tool in R language used for the experiment. - Co

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