The means of expressing modality in speech act of questioning in English and Vietnamese

In both languages, means of expressing modality in indirect

speech act of question in indirect speech act of question includes

grammar, vocabulary and phonetic means. In terms of the number of

means of expressing speech act modality, epistemic and deontic modality

in indirect speech act of question in both languages are equivalent.

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), Diep Quang Ban (2000), Hoang Tue (2001), Pham Hung Viet (2003), Bui Manh Hung (2003), Nguyen Van Hiep (2001, 2004, 2007, 2015) ... directly concerned about the modality of affairs. The researches are very detailed and there are many in-depth interpretations of the emotional issues in various aspects. Cao Xuân Hạo (1999) distinguished two types of attitudes: the modality of speech acts and the modality in statements. Nguyen Thi Luong (1996) applied the linguistic action theory to the study of ten end-use verb phrases to ask in order to find out the verbal actions that end-to-end participle has the ability to express in the specific context in which they appear, describing the validity of those actions”. Pham Hung Viet thinks that in order to express the modality of a sentence, there must be facilities such as phonetic means (intonation, stress), vocabularies (verbs, adverbs, adverbs, exclamations, etc.). the context of the situation, grammar (reversing word order, changing sentence structure ...) and Vietnamese adverbs that can participate in expressing a number of different types of illocutionary including direct and indirect speech act of question. Nguyen Van Hiep (2007) addresses the main modality categories in language based on the opposites of modality pairs such as (the epistemic modality and deontic modality ), the contrast between the epistemic modality and the root modality, the opposite of agent-oriented modality and speaker-oriented modality , the opposite of the modality of the speech purpose and the state of the statement. The emotional contradictions he points out show a wide range of modality studies. 7 The study of the modality and means of modality expressing in speech act of question in English and Vietnamese initially helps us to identify what is the speech act of question in English and Vietnamese; to identify the direct and indirect speech act of question , speech act modality, epistemic modality, deontic modality and the means by which they are expressed. 1.2. Overview of the speech act of question research in English and Vietnamese The speech act of question research is not a new issue and is very interested in linguists, but the attitudes of researchers are also different. For English, special attention is paid to the work of J. Austin (1969) and J. Searle (2001) when researchers refer to the theory of verbal action. Researchers like A.ierzbicka, J. Sadock, G. Gazdar, RM Harnis, G. Yule share the same attitudes with J. Pearle about criteria for classifying speech act, which are the main characteristics, important of speech act. However, the difference in the authors' study of linguistic action lies in the complementary criteria for the characteristics determining the linguistic action such as the conditions of use, or the conditions of satisfaction and orientation. Sort small criteria under big criteria in the classification. The works of J. Austin (1969) O Ducrot (1972) J.Searle (1979) ... directed research on the issues of semantics, pragmatics of the question. J. Searle is the initiator of the study of indirect speech act. O. Ducrot with a view to studying the question in the relationship between a sentence-utterance. For Vietnamese, research by Nguyen Kim Than (1979) shows that the identification of a question is based on the purpose of speaking. Ho Le (1992), Cao Xuan Hao (1995), Diep Quang Ban (2000) identify question through criteria of question marks and signs of questions. Inverting the order, changing the structure of the question may indicate the speaker's intention to focus on a certain point in the speech of the question. On the pragmatic level, it is noteworthy that Le Dong's (1996) study of the question is questionable. He considers the question in question in interpersonal relationships such as communicator, communication role, context, speaking purpose, attitude of the speaker. Lê Đông researched deeply on the pragmatic semantics of proper questions, sub-types of questions, complementary pragmatic information, and modality in proper questions. Nguyen Thi Thin (1996) focused on 11 types of unused 8 questions, indirect questions, non-proper questions in the relationship between grammatical structure and usage, relation of structure and function. Therefore, this research is only limited to describing the purpose and syntax characteristics, usage characteristics of 3 types of questions among typical types of questions that don’t use to ask. Vo Dai Quang (2000) studied the characteristics of the English and Vietnamese proper questions on the pragmatic aspect with the views that classify them into explicit, implicit and alternative questions. From which the authour gives out similarities and differences in pragmatic semantics of the proper question in English and Vietnamese. Nguyễn Việt Tiến (2006) give research on act of questioning and questions based on pragmatics on French evidence with specific analysis of Vietnamese and French questions and actions in their specific positions. . Nguyen Phuc Trung (2011) studied the questioning action in the language of television interview (on channels of VTV, compared to TV5 channel of France) from a pragmatic point of view. The study focused on studying about act of questioning and other speech acts with the purpose of exploiting the necessary information that speakers want in the form of responses in terms of voice pairs and dialogues, the politeness and appearance of linguistic actions in television interviews. CHAPTER 2 MEANS OF MODALITY EXPRESSING IN DIRECT SPEECH ACT OF QUESTION IN ENGLISH AND ENGLISH 2.1. Overview of the direct speech act of question in English and Vietnamese 2.1.1. Definition of direct speech act of question Speech act of quetion that perform their functions directly and literally are called direct speech act of question. That is, the function that the sentence implements in the discourse is its literal meaning. Direct speech act of question can be taken in two ways: 1) By creating a literal, direct statement; 2) By using an action verb call the action verb name. Thus, the act of asking directly is a verbal act performed by a questionnaire with a question expression in order to search for unknown information to know. We can use interrogative questions to perform direct questioning. 9 2.1.2. Identify direct speech act of question in English Direct speech act of question in English is done by questioning. The form of a question in English is as follows: 1. The first position of the verb as the predicate (also known as the predicate) in English. 2. Question with question words begin with what, when, where, who, whom, which, whose, why and how .... 3. Question s with the question words what, who, which or whose is the subject or part of the subject, this question has no auxiliary verb 4. A question with a negative word is formed by adding ‘not’ after the auxiliary verb. 5. Question has negative meaning words Thus, the direct speech act of question in English is identified as follows: (1) The action is taken with a question such as (Overview questions or Yes-No questions), Part questions (Wh- questions), Selection questions using OR (Questions) with OR) or use the action verb (2) The question pronoun in the question plays a role as a means of conveying modality (3) Intonation questions In English intonation, the commonly used question is glide- up in the general questions (yes-no questions, tag questions) and the tone in the partial questions (Wh-questions ) (4) Adverbial expressions in the question (5) At the end of the question, there is a question mark (?) in written form. 2.1.3. Identify direct speech act of question in Vietnamese The direct speech act of question is the action in which its validity is consistent with the form and function of the type of question being used to indicate it. Direct speech act of question in Vietnamese is identified as follows: - Question is done by questioning - The questioning action is used in accordance with the conditions of use 10 - The speech act of question is correct to use their target language. The form of a question in Vietnamese is as follows: 1. Questions often use pronouns such as ai, gì, nào, sao, tại sao, đâu, bao giờ, bao nhiêu, à, ư, hả, chứ,, specific participle in question such as (có) không ,có phải... không.... (đã, chưa) 2. Specific participle in question such as such as (có) không ,có phải... không.... (đã, chưa) with hay (connecting the related parts of choice). 3. The participle of modality participle (à, ư, nhỉ, nhé..).... 4. The end of the question is the question mark (?) In written form and the glide up intonation in spoken form (usually glide up intonation on the voice at the end of the sentence) In Vietnamese, direct speech act of question is the action performed by overview /general question,Wh- question, alternative question, and echo question. 2.2. Means of expressing modality in the direct speech act of question in English 2.2.1. Means of expressing speech act modality in the in the direct speech act of question in English The modality in the direct speech act of question in English is questionable modality. The questioning attitude is used by the speaker to express the desire to learn the unknown or doubtful and to expect the answers and explanations of the listener to the speaker. The means of conveying the questionable modality is the question. According to synthesized questionable speech sources in English-Vietnamese corpus bilingual corpus ( literary works such as "Gone with the Wind" written by Margaret Mitchell, "The Da Vinci Code" written by Dan Brown , we statistically included 545overviewed questions, 525 partial questions/Wh- questions , 485alternative questions, 465 echoed question on a total of more than 2020 questions. Questionable modality expressed by means of interrogative sentences often contain modality predicate verbs (look like, suppose, think, would of ask, may, will, must, should, ...), question structure with or / or maybe, the question words such as what, why, how, 11 where, when, ..., the verbs Say, tell, ask before the whole question clause or question words used to ask. 2.2.2. Means of expressing epistemic modality and deontic modality in direct speech act of question in English Epistemic modality and deontic modality in direct speech act of question in English is marked by declarative mood, modal verbs, modal adjectives, modal adverbs, hedges, modal nouns. 2.3. Means of expressing modality in the speech act of question in Vietnamese. 2.3.1 Means of expressing speech act modality in the in the direct speech act of question in Vietnamese Direct speech act of question is the action in language used by the speaker to express unknown or doubtful things and expect the answers and explanations of the listener to the speaker. Modality in direct speech act of question inVietnamese is questionable modality. The questionable modality is expressed through the means of questions such as overviewquestions, alternative questions, Wh- questions and echo questions. 2.3.2 Means of expressing epistemic modality and deontic modality in direct speech act of question in Vietnamese Epistemic modality and deontic modality are both subjective modality. The subjective modality is the kind of modality related to the speaker's attitude to what is said in the sentence as well as the relationship between the subject and the core of an expression being marked. The subjective modality is also the speaker's judgment about the truth of what is said in the sentence; is the possibility or necessity of that; is the speaker's way of assessing the situation conveyed; is the speaker's introduction of the nature of the sentence; is the relationship between sentences and situations of good dialogues with context and many other content in the field of logic or superlanguage. Means of expressing epistemic modality and deontic modality in direct speech act of question in Vietnamese are expressed by: (1) Modal verbs: muốn, có thể, phải, dám, cần phải, phải nói, biết, nghĩ, đoán, đồ, tiên đoán, bị, nên, cần, hi vọng, sẽ, suýt, toan, định, hòng; 12 (2) Modal modifiers: đã, đang, sẽ, còn, chưa.; (3) Modal participles : à, ư, nhỉ, nhé, chăng..; (4) Modal Adverbs: có lẽ là, có thể là, chắc chắn, thường xuyên, cần thiết, thường thường, thực tế; (5) Modal adjectives: thật, quả thật, hiển nhiên, rõ ràng, đúng, rất, quá, lắm, chắc, hết sức, vô cùng, cực kì, tốt nhất, ít nhất, vừa vừa.. (6) Hedges : Chúng (tôi) cho rằng, chúng (tôi) nghĩ rằng, tôi nghĩ rằng, chúng (tôi) tin rằng, theo chúng tôi, theo tôi; tôi hỏi khí không phải, tôi mạn phép hỏi, nếu không phiền tôi xin phép hỏi.; 2.3.3. The similarities and differences in means of expressing modality in direct speech act of question in English and Vietnamese 2.3.3.1. Similarities In both languages, there are numbers of means of expressing speech act modality, means of expressing epistemic and deontic modality in the direct speech act of question includes grammar, vocabulary and phonetic. In terms of the number of means of expressing those modalities in direct speech act of question in Engish and Vietnamese are equivalent. 2.3.3.2. Differences In different languages, the expressions of modality are not the same. In English, the modality is expressed through grammatical systems such as modal nouns – (Possibility, probability), and phonetic means (intonation contour - contour, intonation -tune: the glide -down, the glide-up, the take-off, the dive ...) the syllable (tonic syllable), combined with the words to convey content of question which is one of the means to convey the epistemic and deontic modality quite peculiarly in English, which is absent or rarely used in Vietnamese. We realize that the vocabulary part like the modal particle (à , ư , nhỉ , nhé, sao, chăng) all conveys a certain modality meaning and is a specific feature in Vietnamese, however, these informal phrases are not in English, instead English people use intonation (intonation, volume stress) to convey the nuances of modality. 13 CHAPTER 3 MEANS OF MODALITY EXPRESSING IN INDIRECT SPEECH ACT OF QUESTION IN ENGLISH AND ENGLISH 3.1. Overview of the indirect speech act of question in English and Vietnamese From the standpoint of indirect speech act of question, it can be seen that the indirect speech act of question has two forms of expression: The first form of expression is that the force of interrogation is expressed in a form that is not a question, and the expression. The second is the form of questions used to indicate an effect in another illocutionary- not to ask for information. In the framework of this thesis we focus on the first form of expression. 3.1.1. Definition of indirect speech act of question Indirect speech act of question is the act of asking using a non-formal style of the question and being identified by the speaker's purpose, which means that there are many ways to perform the speech act of question. The act of asking through a question is called direct speech act of question. The indirect speech act of question is the action when the speaker does not use the question, but uses the narrative and the imperative to ask in order to find the answer that the speaker wants to know. 3.1.2. Identify indirect speech act of question in English Indirect speech act of question is identified by the speaker's purpose, the form and structure of the narrative and imperative used in communication. They often have the following formal signs: 3.1.2.1. Indirect speech act of question in English through narrative sentences. (1) The main proposition is to use narration. (2) The subordinate contains questionable pronouns, modal words (3) Intonation questions. Form of English narrative sentence The characteristic of the narrative form is that it does not have the formal characteristics of the question, sentence or exclamation sentence meaning that the narrative does not use specific 14 words and specific words such as the word suspected: interrogative, interdependent / imperative, exclamatory. Narrative sentences are the most common and important type. The function of the narrative is to convey information, an incident, a phenomenon, or to declare something. In written form, narrative sentences usually end with a full stop (.), Or sometimes an exclamation mark (!) Or an ellipsis (;). The narrative form is usually divided into two types: affirmative and negative form. The structure of the narrative sentence used in question includes the narrative mood of the verb (in the main clause), the question word (Wh-word) in the sub-clause. 2.2.2.2. Indirect speech act of question in English through imperative sentences Indirect questioning in English through the usual imperative is: (1) A proposition is a command mode. (2) The subordinate contains questionable pronouns such as Who, Whom, which, whose, why, how ... (3) Intonation questions. Form of English imperative sentence An imperative is a sentence that is so dictated that it is also called a sentence, used when the speaker requests or orders another person to do something. It is often followed by the word "please". The subject of the command is implied as "you". In English, a statement is characterized by a command phrase with the sign that the absence of the subject, the verb in its original form and the absence of the adverb as well as the means of marking the time and the accompanying. Indirect speech act of question of English through the narration has the following signs: (1) The modal verbs: want to know, ask, wonder, want to ask in the predicate position and questionable words like who, what, why, .in the position of sub- clause consistent in the sentence. (2) There is questionable words (3) Context Form of Vietnamese narrative sentence Narrative sentences are descriptions, presentations, and identification of many kinds of things. Narrative sentences in 15 Vietnamese do not have unmarked sentences like other sentence types, they are seen as a statement and have specific language signs. This type of sentence often uses a period at the end. Narrative sentences are not always used for identification but in addition to those values they are also used for asking or asking for suggestions or expressing emotions. Narrative sentences are very common in communication. Indirect speech act of question through the Vietnamese narrative is identified through: The modal verbs: Nói cho biết, hãy nói, hãy cho biết....in the predicate position( main clause), the question words like ai, gì, nào, sao... in the propositional position in sub-clause of sentences. 3.1.2.2. Indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese through imperative sentences. The Indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese through inperative sentence have the following signs: (1) Verbs represent the required actions and asked: : Nói cho biết, hãy nói, hãy cho biết.... (2) Question words such as tại sao, cái gì, nào, đâu,đi chứ, đi nào... in the sub-clause of sentence. (3) Context Form of Vietnamese imperative sentence The imperative sentence in Vietnamese is, in fact, a narrative structure but is marked mainly by intonation and some emotional elements such as "“ hãy, đừng, chớ, , etc." or the "“ đi, nào, thôi,đi chứ, ..etc ... ”The final sentence has an exclamation mark. (!) 3.2. Means of expressing modality in indirect speech act of question in English 3.2.1. Means of expressing speech act modality in indirect speech act of question in English Speech act modality in direct speech act of question in English is questionable modality. The questioning attitude is used by the speaker to express the desire to learn the unknown or doubtful and to expect the answers and explanations of the listener. The means of conveying the questionable modality is the question. According to 16 the synthesized data, we have 545 overview questions, 525 wh- questions, 485 alternative questions, 465 echo questions out of a total of more than 2020 interrogated statements. Interrogative modality expressed by means of interrogative sentences often contains modal predicate verbs (look like, suppose, think, would of ask, may, will, must, should, ...), question structure with or / or maybe, the question words what , why, how, where, when, ..., the verbs Say, tell, ask before the whole question or question words used to ask. 3.2.2. Means of expressing epistemic and deontic modality in indirect speech act of question in English Epistemic and deontic modality in indirect speech act of question in English is marked by declarative mood, modalverbs, modal adjectives, modal adverbs, modal nouns, hedges . 3.3. Means of expressing speech act modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese 3.3.1. Means of expressing speech act modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese Speech act modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese is the act of words used by the speaker to express unknown or doubtful things and expect the answers and explanations of the listener. Modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese is questionable modality. The questioning modality is highlighted through the means of questioning such as overview questions, alternative questions, wh- questions and interrogated questions. 3.3.2. Means of expressing epistemic modality and deontic modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese Epistemic modality and deontic modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese are both subjective modality. The subjective modality is the kind of moality related to the speaker's attitude to what is said in the sentence as well as the relationship between the subject and the body of an expression being expressed. The subjective modality is also the speaker's judgment about the truth of what is said in the 17 sentence; is the possibility or necessity of that; is the speaker's way of assessing the situation conveyed; is the speaker's introduction of the nature of the sentence; is the relationship between sentences and situations of the dialogues with context and many other content in the field of logic or superlanguage. Means of expressing the attitude in the epistemic modality and deontic modality in indirect speech act of question in Vietnamese are expressed by: (1) Modal verbs: muốn, có thể, phải, dám, cần phải, phải nói, biết, nghĩ, đoán, đồ, tiên đoán, bị, nên, cần, hi vọng, sẽ, suýt, toan, định, hòng; (2) Modal modifiers đã, đang, sẽ, còn, chưa.; (3)Modal participles : à, ư, nhỉ, nhé, chăng..; (4) Modal adverbs: có lẽ là, có thể là, chắc chắn, thường xuyên, cần thiết, thường thường, thực tế; (5) Modal adjectives: hiển nhiên, rõ ràng, đúng, tốt nhất, ít nhất, vừa vừa .. accompanied by quantified modifiers rất, quá, lắm, chắc, hết sức, vô cùng, cực kì. (6) Hedges : Chúng (tôi) cho rằng, chúng (tôi) nghĩ rằng, tôi nghĩ rằng, chúng (tôi) tin rằng, theo chúng tôi, theo tôi; tôi hỏi khí không phải, tôi mạn phép hỏi, nếu không phiền tôi xin phép hỏi.; 3.3.3. Similarities and differences in means of expressing modality in indirect speech act of question in English and Vietnamese 3.3.3.1. Similarities In both languages, means of expressing modality in indirect speech act of question in indirect speech act of question includes grammar, vocabulary and phonetic means. In terms of the number of means of expressing speech act modality, epistemic and deontic modality in indirect speech act of question in both languages are equivalent. 3.3.3.2. Differences In different languages, the expressions of modality are not the same. In English, the meaning of modality is expressed through grammatical systems such as consciousness - lexical means such as modal nouns (possibility, probability) and phonetic means (such as intonation of the glide-down, the glide- up, the take-off, the dive) is 18 one of the means of conveying the sense of modality and fairly pious modality in English which is not or rarely used in Vietnamese. We realize that the vocabulary part like the state particle (à , ư , nh ỉ , nh é, sao, chăng) all conveys a certain meaning and is a specific feature in Vietnamese, however, these informal

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