Tóm tắt Luận án Learning consultancy for students of mountainous technical colleges

In Vietnam, academic counseling is also studied under the role of academic advisor, with the main function of consulting and supporting students in the course of studying and researching courses (Tran Thi Minh Duc, Nguyen DuyMong Ha, Tran Van Chuong, Pham ThiLua etc.). On the basis of understanding some researches on academic counseling, with the expectation that learners will find ways to study in accordance with their capacity and learning environment, some authors have studied deeply how to teach Study (Nguyen CanhToan, Nguyen Ky, Le Khanh Bang, Vu Van Tao, Nguyen Van Khoi) etc

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learning counseling, counseling needs of learners etc. in the most general way in credit training. Some measures have a direct impact on the learning process of learners. However, there has not been any research project mentioning learning counseling with a focus on self-study in credit training with technical disciplines. The condition of self-study of learners in technical teaching is an indispensable factor when discussing measures to improve self-study capacity for learners. This project will conduct research advisory activities in teaching for students at mountainous technical colleges with a focus on self-study methodology for students. 1.2. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS 1.2.1. Counseling Counseling is a cooperative and voluntary activity between the counselor and the person in need of advice. In which the counselor offers scientific suggestions or advice to help the person who needs advice to solve a problem they need to solve but do not know how to solve, or help them choose aoptimal solutions out of the possible solutions to solve a problem. 1.2.2. Academic counseling Counseling in broad terms, is a form of training or teaching activity in which the counselor gives advice to the mentor on the study-related issues, information on the career he / she has chosen in throughout the learning process. 1.2.3. Self-study Self-study is a learning activity that learners themselves learn, research and train to acquire knowledge, form and develop skills, thereby forming competencies and qualities. The results of self-study are not only new knowledge and new skills, but also the formation and development of self-research methods. 1.2.4. Self-studycounseling Self-study counseling (learning advice in the narrow sense) is a teaching method in which teachers act as consultants, instructors, perform tasks: assign tasks, make requests, guide how perform; self-study and self-study learners under the guidance of teachers to perform the task as required and report the results. 1.3. THEORY OF ACADEMIC COUNSELINGIN TECHNICAL TEACHING 1.3.1. Scientific basis of building the theory of academic counseling in technical teaching 1.3.1.1. Characteristics of training under the credit system The method of training under the credit system has some following outstanding features: - The training program is flexible and flexible. - Students' learning time in class is significantly reduced. - Studying under credit system requires students to be active, proactive and have methods of self-study and self-scientific research. - Teaching by credit system requires students to develop cooperative skills. 1.3.1.2. Activities of academic advisors in academic counseling - Activities of academic advisors Most schools have academic advisors, but the functions and duties of academic advisors are identified: Counseling, supporting, assisting students in the process of learning and scientific research, career orientation, Advising students to exercise their rights and obligations throughout the training process. - Academic advising activities of academic advisors One of the important activities of academic advisors in credit training is academic counseling. Academic counseling includes some basic content: consulting approach to learning, training advice and learning plans. 1.3.1.3 Characteristics of technical learning - Learning content often includes theory and practice, experiments, lots of time for sightseeing, extracurricular, production practice. - The subjects, modules and modules of technical subjects with knowledge content are highly practical. - Learning content is often backward compared to the development of science and technology. 1.3.1.4. Learning conditions of students Learners at these institutions are characterized by many different ethnic groups and different living conditions. This diversity requires teachers to base on specific conditions to have different self-study advice and instructions. Laboratories, workshops practicing equipment are outdated and isolated, no longer suitable to current production and teaching technology requirements. Therefore, in the learning process, students only learn through the model simulation system, go to school to experience very little reality, without the guidance of teachers. 1.3.2. Academic counseling process To provide self-study counseling and guidance for students, the following content needs to be fully implemented: The learning advisory process can be summarized through the diagram in Figure 1.1. Step 1: Preparation 1. Analyze goals and lesson content 2. Determining means and equipment in service of teaching 3. Identify self-study and self-study tasks of students 4. Determining requirements on products and contents of reports 5. Develop instruction content Step 2: Organize the implementation 1. Assign tasks and instructions on how to do them 2. Organizing students to report on the results of task performance 3. Hold a class to discuss the results of the reports 4. Comment, evaluate and finalize the learning content Step 3: Finishing 1. Draw experience 2. Supplementing and adjusting the necessary contents 3. Complete the entire work content Figure 1.1. The process of academic counseling in technical teaching 1.3.3. Evaluate the effectiveness of academic counseling activities a. Consultancy content: Instruction content is specific, clear and easy to understand. Students understand the tasks, know the results to be achieved. Tasks are suitable for students to complete and achieve the goals of the lesson. b. Counseling method: Suitable for each object, promoting the self-discipline, positive, proactive, creativity of students. Students know the method of performing tasks, self-evaluation, and evaluation of each other in the learning process. c. The effectiveness of consulting activities: Students have a method of studying and practicing, finding materials and researching, forming self-discipline, serious and cooperative working styles.Academic results achieve teaching goals. 1.3.4. Factors affecting academic consultancy activities in technical teaching * Teacher: When teaching by the method of yearly learning, teachers almost have no pressure to guide students to self-study. Therefore, when switching to teaching under the credit system, at first the teachers were also very embarrassed, even afraid to study self-study instruction. * Student: Students undergo the general education period with the teaching and learning method still heavy on one-way transmission. On the other hand, the volume and characteristics of knowledge and skills of technical college training programs are much different from general education in the direction of more and more difficult. Therefore, initially students cannot avoid shyness and encounter certain difficulties in self-study and self-research methods. * Characteristics of technical training program: An outstanding feature of the technical college training program is that the training objectives are focused on implementation capacity, operational skills, so the number of subjects and modules with practical contents account for a significant proportion. 1.4. CURRENT SITUATION OF LEARNING ADVICE FOR STUDENTS AT TECHNICAL COLLEGE 1.4.1. Survey purpose, content and method 1.4.2. Survey results 1.4.2.1. Quantitative survey results 1.4.2.2. Qualitative survey results CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 1 From the results of theoretical and practical research on academic consultancy activities, in particular, self-study counseling for students in technical teaching, some following comments can be drawn: Based on the theoretical analysis of consultancy activities, characteristics of the credit-based training system and a number of other scientific bases, the topic has built a process of consulting activities in teaching. The science, feasibility and effectiveness of this process are expressed through the application of specific teaching content and demonstrated by testing and evaluation. According to the survey, assessing the situation of teaching at some technical colleges in the Northern Midland and Mountain area, despite the fact that the training has been conducted under the mode of credit learning, almost self-study of Students have not been focused and not done well. Both teachers and students are still confused in organizing, guiding and evaluating self-study results. From the above observations, it is necessary to research to have solutions to promote self-study activities for students, in which the counseling and guidance of teachers are decisive. Chapter 2 MEASURES OF LEARNING COUNSELING FOR STUDENTS IN TRAINING OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY 2.1. OVERVIEW OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN THE TRAINING PROGRAM OF ELECTRICAL, ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY 2.1.1. Training objectives in Electrical and Electronics Technology 2.1.1.1. General objective 2.1.1.2. The goal of knowledge 2.1.1.3. Skill goal 2.1.1.4. The goal of attitude 2.1.2. Overview of the subject Electrical equipment 2.1.2.1. Objective of the subject 2.1.2.2. Content outline of the subject 2.1.2.3. Subject characteristics 2.1.2.4. Factors affecting self-study activities of students 2.2. PRINCIPLES OF PROPOSING LEARNING COUNSELING IN TRAINING IN ELECTRONICS AND ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY 2.2.1. Principles to ensure goals and training programs 2.2.2. Principles of ensuring feasibility 2.2.3. Principles of ensuring compliance with the characteristics of learners 2.3. SOME MEASURES OF LEARNING COUNSELING IN ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT TEACHING 2.3.1. Measure 1: Learning counseling for students during theoretical teaching hours 2.3.1.1. content Example of application: LESSON 12. ENGINE CONVEYOR SYSTEM Step 1: PREPARATION Task 1.1: Analyzing goals and lesson content 1.1.1 Lesson objectives: Knowledge, skill, attitude; Academic counseling: Is expressed through the evaluation criteria of learning results after academic counseling. 1.1.2 Preparation 1.1.3. Lesson content: Circuit construction, circuit working principle, how the circuit is operated Task 1.2: Identify facilities and equipment for teaching - Equipment: contactor, time relay, thermal relay, 3 phase motor - Means: Computers, projectors, simulation diagrams, clips of interactive virtual technology, students' self-evaluation questionnaires, etc. Task 1.3: Identify tasks of self-study and self-study a. Created sentence: Identify the elements and devices on the diagram b. Working Principle Task 1.4: Determining product requirements, content and how to report - Products that students make. - How to present the report: At the end of the lesson, the teacher checks the product, students present the work performed,studentssubmitthe training evaluation form and the practice result evaluation form. Task 1.5: Develop the content of complete instructions After completing 5 tasks of the preparation step, the teacher proceeds to prepare the lesson plan. Including the organization of students reporting self-study results; Discuss the product in the corresponding lesson content. Step 2: ORGANIZATION OF IMPLEMENTATION Task 2.1: Assign tasks and instructions on how to do them This job can be done in two ways: - Method 1: Applying teaching in the reverse classroom model, the teacher elaborates the instructions in the above 1.5 work, teachers can print the content on paper to give to students when starting the lesson. - Method 2: In the process of teaching teachers to assign tasks to each group, state requirements and guide students how to perform each specific content in a certain time period. Task 2.2: Organizing students to report on the results of task performance - The content of the report includes: Name, function of the elements in the circuit; working principle of electric circuit. Students must raise a few questions, issues that need to be answered in the lesson content. - How to present the report: Depending on the specific situation, the teacher may give some candidates to volunteer; or organize a group discussion and then present a representative of the group; or teachers call some students directly to present. Task 2.3: Organizing a class to discuss the results of the reports When giving students a report, the teacher asks the whole class to concentrate on listening, can ask questions for you, can raise opinions that are different from yours, etc. Task 2.4: Comment, evaluate and finalize the learning content After finishing the organization of discussion, teachers should make comments to assess the learning results, learning spirit, comments, evaluation, debate, etc. of students in class. After that, the teacher finalizes the content that students need to comprehend the lesson. Step 3: FINISHING Based on the organization process in the classroom, the teacher draws experiences from preparation to organization and administration. 2.3.1.2. Comment With this teaching method, there are some benefits: 1) Students will be facilitated to form a habit of replicating old relevant knowledge to search and unravel new knowledge, use old knowledge to prove new knowledge, practice skills to apply theoretical knowledge into practice. Thereby, students can grasp both knowledge and craft skills, especially learning skills to find new knowledge. 2) Teachers have conditions to guide, supervise and intervene in time and can also explain some contents. Especially with the technical subject of very abstract theory lessons, the teaching advice of teachers is more effective. 3) This approach also creates excitement and motivation for learning. The advisory content for students is applied logic, briefly for each sub-section of the theoretical part to help the lesson ensure the lesson objectives, and the student's learning efficiency reaches high results. 2.3.2. Measure 2: Learning couseling for students during practical lessons 2.3.2.1. content          Example of application Lesson 09. ASSEMBLY AND ASSEMBLING THE ELECTRICCIRCUIT GRINDER Step 1: PREPARATION Task 1.1: Analyzing goals and lesson content 1.1.1. Lesson objectives: Knowledge, skills, attitude; Academic counseling: Is expressed through the evaluation criteria of learning results after academic counseling. 1.1.2. Prepare 1.1.3. Lesson content: Assemble and connect the electric circuit according to the drawings to ensure proper technical requirements; Examine and run the test in accordance with the technology requirements, ensure industrial hygiene and safety in accordance with regulations. Task 1.2: Identify facilities and equipment for teaching; Equipment, supplies and tools. Task 1.3: Identify self-study tasks Students can read and research some content by themselves: Symbols, functions of electronic devices on the circuit, the principle structure of the circuit, determining the connection point. Learn more about crimping and wiring techniques, wiring methods Task 1.4: Develop the content of complete instructions Teachers need to pay close attention and if necessary, they can supplement and suggest solutions such as skill in determining the position of connectors on the bar, skills of checking continuity, skills of wiring on each circuit. , bundling skills ... Step 2: ORGANIZATION OF IMPLEMENTATION Task 2.1: Assign tasks and instructions on how to do them In this part, the teacher will advise on self-implementation, students will report the results of teacher implementation and conclude and give the final plan for students to implement. At the end of the session, the teacher will work with the students to carry out the instructions to finish commenting on the training results, informing the business plan according to Task 2.2: Organizing students to report on the results of task performance - The content of the report includes: Working principles, wiring methods; electrical circuit connection points. In addition, students must state some common failures and remedies. - How to present the report: The group will report on the performance of the group's work and products and answer questions of the teachers. Task 2.3: Organizing a class to discuss the results of the reports Teachers can let the team leader report the whole work, can request any student in the reporting group; It is also possible for each student to report a stage. Task 2.4: Comment, evaluate and finalize the learning content After finishing the work of listening to reports and discussions, teachers need to make comments to assess the learning results, learning spirit, comments, assessments, arguments, ... about the learning content. After that, the teacher finalizes the content that the students should understand, the skills students need to form and train. Step 3: FINISHING After completing a practice, teachers base on the organization process to draw experiences from preparation to organization and administration. From there, there are necessary adjustments and additions to make the next performance more effective and also to draw lessons for other lessons. 2.3.3.2. Comment With this teaching method, we can solve some of the following problems: Students acquire the skills of self-seeking and discovering new knowledge through experience in collecting information, processing information using old knowledge so that they can actively receive content knowledge in the classroom. . By elaborating the contents of advising and guidance to students in detail, the lesson will ensure the achievement of the lesson objectives and the students' learning effectiveness will achieve high results. Students are more interested and actively learning in class because they are presented the research results before class, students understand the lesson better faster. 2.3.3. Measure 3: Study advice for students to practice self-guided instruction In order to deploy students to practice self-guided instruction, teachers still divide the lesson into 4 main activities as usual: "initial instruction", "regular instruction", "final instruction" and "instruction" guide self-training ”. However, teachers only teach in two activities as the initial instruction and the end instruction, while the other two activities are entirely for students to self-study or teachers only participate in a part-time direct teaching. When students learn by themselves, learning activities are mainly organized and performed by students themselves. The way to organize students' self-study with practice is called "self-directed practice study". The counseling, self-directed instruction for students to practice by themselves with instructions generally follow the process outlined in Figure 1.1 but with appropriate adjustments. 2.3.3.1. content Example of application LESSON 04. GETTING STARTED ASYNCHRONOUS 3-ROTO ENGINE ENGINE WITH HORIZONTAL BY CHANGE STAR - TRIANGLE WITH CHANGE RIGHT Step 1: PREPARATION Task 1.1: Analyzing goals and lesson content 1.1.1. Lesson objectives: 1.1.2. Prepare 1.1.3. Lesson content: - Draw electric circuits and equipment; Assembly of connectors; Check and commissioning circuit. Task 1.2: Identify facilities and equipment for teaching 1.2.1. Teaching facilities Projectors, computers, realistic simulation clips, circuit models for testing machines, A0 drawing paper, markers 1.2.2. Teaching equipment Task 1.3: Identify tasks of self-study and self-study In order for students to achieve the goals set out in the process of teaching teachers, the counselor guides students how to do it. Students are fully active in self-reading, self-study, self-assembling to connect the machine circuit with the knowledge and practical skills learned. Task 1.4: Determining product requirements, content and how to report - Products that students make. - How to present the report: At the end of the lesson, the teacher checks the product, students present the work performed, students submit the training evaluation form and the practice result evaluation form. Task 1.5: Develop the content of complete instructions Teachers will develop complete content to guide students to self-study with the following specific tasks: Develop implementation plans; Implementation process; How to advice. Step 2: ORGANIZATION OF IMPLEMENTATION Task 2.1: Assign tasks and instructions on how to do them This is a type of article in which general and comprehensive knowledge is a combination of theoretical knowledge with practice. The teacher assigns the required content, the teacher divides the group, assigns the team leader, assigns the study positions of the groups, hands over equipment, supplies and tools to the students, labor safety testing, etc. Students plan to perform. Task 2.2: Organizing students to report on the results of task performance - The content of the report includes: The plan to draw the circuit diagram, the circuit diagram of the circuit connection, the structure and working principle of the circuit, SV electrical circuit products. - How to present the report: This is a separate report for each group with the teacher, the group will report the process of the work and products of the group and answer questions of the teachers. Task 2.3: Organizing a class to discuss the results of the reports Teachers organize groups to report on the implementation and presentation of their products, students of other groups to follow, and ask questions to the group that is reporting. Task 2.4: Comment, evaluate and finalize the learning content After finishing the work of listening to reports and discussions, teachers will make comments to assess learning outcomes according to the teaching objectives set out on knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Finally, the teacher finalizes the content of knowledge that the students should acquire, the skills that students need to form and train. Step 3: FINISHING After completing the lesson, teachers base on the organization process to draw experiences from the planning stage, prepare teaching conditions, the advice content on how to implement the lesson to the organization stage. 2.3.3.2. Comment The theory is inherently difficult to understand, with this method, students can apply theoretical knowledge into practice to help them master the theory more clearly, understand more specifically, students practice practical skills, gain practical experience. sacrifice for yourself. Create conditions for students to promote self-discipline, positive and proactive learning. 2.3.4. General comments on 3 measures of academic counseling Students have just acquired theoretical knowledge, practiced practical skills, and formed and developed the capacity for self-study and self-research. All three measures allow to ensure the achievement of lesson objectives when the time of classroom teaching is shortened. At the same time, students have enough time to form and practice practical skills in the context of reduced practice time. Through self-study, students are not only interested in exploring but also shaping a lifelong learning style, which is one of the requirements for today's technical workers. CONCLUSION OF CHAPTER 2           From the results of theoretical and practical research on academic counseling activities, in particular self-study counseling for students in technical teaching, some following comments can be drawn: Through research, analysis subjects, contents, programs and characteristics of the subject Electrical equipment shows that there are many contents that can be taught for students to self-study. In order to support students to self-study, teachers need to have scientific guidance, examination, supervision and timely and effective support. On the other hand, only enhancement for students to self-study can accomplish the goal of the subject in the context of a much reduced class time. The implementation of the three measures also allows to initially affirm the science, feasibility and effectiveness of the learning counseling process in teaching that was developed and presented in chapter 1. The testing and evaluatingacademiccounselingprocess as well as the contents of the measures will be presented in chapter 3. Chapter 3 TESTING AND ASSESSMENT 3.1. PURPOSE, SUBJECTS AND METHODS OF TESTING 3.1.1. Test purpose 3.1.2. Test object 3.1.3. Testing methods 3.2. TESTED BY EXPERTS METHOD 3.2.1. Content and implementation process 3.2.1.1. Content 3.2.1.2. Implementation process 3.2.2. Test results 3.2.2.1. Qualitative evaluation 3.2.2.2. Quantitative evaluation 3.3. TESTED BY PEDAGOGIC PRACTICE METHOD 3.3.1. Experimental purposes 3.3.2. Experimental mission 3.3.3. Experimental plan 3.3.3.1. Experimental object 3.3.3.2. Location and experiment time 3.3.3.3. Experimental lecturer 3.3.4. Experimental method 3.3.4.1. Experimental preparation content 3.3.4.2. Conducting experiments 3.3.4.3. Gather information and data to evaluate 3.3.5. Handling experimental results 3.3.5.1. Quantitative evalua

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