Tóm tắt Luận án Researching the apparel retail service delivery competencies of small and medium enterprises in major cities of Vietnam

Competencies to measure and evaluate service delivery results

Through the provision of new designs and products to the market on a seasonal basis or collections by event and time. With a frequency of 1 month/ time. The company also pays great attention to product quality, meticulous in choosing the fabric to create luxurious products, worthy of customer expectations. H&H also innovates and ensures product quality.

 

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ngure 1: Service package (Source: Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, 2011) 2.3. Apparel retail services delivery competencies of SMEs 2.3.1. Resources and competencies of the enterprises a. Resources Table 2: Resources of enterprises Tangible resources Intangible resources Material Financial sources Technology Organization Intellectual property Brand, company image Relationships Corporate culture (Source: Thompson et al, 2015) b. The competencies of the business "Competence is the ability to maintain, deploy, coordinate resources in an appropriate manner for the company to achieve its goals in a competitive context" (Sanchez and Heene, 1996, 2004). 2.3.1.2. Service delivery competencies According to Lai and partners (2010), " Service delivery competencies is the ability to create and exploit the resources of enterprises to better service to meet the needs of customers". 2.3.2. Factors that constitute the apparel retail service delivery competencies of SMEs In order to build a service delivery system, apparel retail SMEs need to ensure the components of service competencies (Johnston and Clark, 2005; Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, 2006; Barney, 1991; Sanchez et al, 1996; David, 2014). These factors represent each aspect of competencies in service delivery, including: 2.3.2.1. Ability to set vision and plan retail strategies 2.3.2.2. Research competencies and customer needs identification 2.3.2.3. Competencies to build and develop service packages in accordance with customer needs 2.3.2.4. Competencies in managing service delivery process 2.3.2.5. Competencies of managing sales personnel and providing services 2.3.2.6. Competencies to measure and evaluate service delivery results. 2.3.3. Factors affecting apparel retail service delivery competencies of SMEs 2.3.3.1. Macro environmental factors a. Demographic environment b. Economic environment c. Political legal environment d. Technology environment e. Social and cultural environment 2.3.3.2. Micro environmental factors a. Customer b. Competitors c. Partner 2.3.4. Criteria for assessing apparel retail service delivery competencies of SMEs 2.3.4.1. Meaning of assessing service delivery competencies 2.3.4.2. Models and criteria for assessing service competencies The most used model is the "balanced scorecard". A balanced scorecard covers the following four key aspects: Financial criteria, internal operational criteria, customer criteria, learning and growth criteria. 2.3.4.3. Forms of assessing SME's apparel retail service delivery competencies a. Assessment from customers b. Internal assessment 2.3.4.4. Method of evaluating service delivery competencies a. Quantitative methods b. Qualitative method c. Method of assessing apparel retail service delivery competencies of SMEs To assess the apparel retail service delivery competencies of SMEs, the topic used a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods. CHAPTER 3 CURRENT SITUATION OF APPAREL RETAIL SERVICE DELIVERY COMPETENCIES OF SMES IN MAJOR CITIES OF VIETNAM 3.1. Overview of the apparel retail market in major cities of Vietnam 3.1.1. Apparel retail market of Vietnam The Vietnamese apparel retail market has expanded rapidly over the past few years due to the significant increase of modern retail, coupled with increasing market competition, and increased income levels (AT Kearney, 2008; 2009; 2010; 2011a). Specifically, according to the Retail Apparel Index (RAI) 2016, Vietnam has joined the top 10 countries in terms of apparel market attractiveness, retail market growth and national risk (AT). Kearney, 2019). Domestic apparel sales have increased continuously over the past few years. 3.1.2. Apparel retail market in major cities 3.1.2.1. Retail through stores Survey results of shoppers in major cities show that, in the type of apparel retail, specialized shops that sell only one brand are still selected by many customers as the most preferred shopping destinations. This is followed by specialized stores with many brands, the third is general supermarkets and super malls, and finally traditional markets. Currently, the network of manufacturers' showrooms is still quite thin and the goal of these showrooms is focusing on product introduction and market presence, but not putting priority on retail sales. 3.1.2.2. Retail not through the store Nowadays, with the development of information technology and saving time, many young people prefer to choose apparels on social networks or "electronic markets". Products are sold on various online sales websites with many domestic and foreign brands. 3.1.3. Characteristics of customers shopping for apparel in major cities of Vietnam 3.1.3.1. Customer characteristics by market segment In recent years, consumers have tended to choose Vietnamese apparels. Therefore, the consumer segments are not as clear as they used to be, but rather interwoven. 3.1.3.2. Customer characteristics by consumption motives Survey data shows that the majority of customers will buy when they need to replace old clothes (50.7%) and when they have a lot of money (47.6%). For customers who only buy clothes when necessary, the percentage is very small, 4.3%. In addition, the time before traveling or having a big event or when having friends is also a large proportion of customer buying decisions (41%), random purchases also account for a large proportion, (39.8%). A small proportion is the shopping motivation due to sadness, stress accounted for 9.7% of the respondents confirmed. In particular, only 4.3% of the respondents said that buying clothing was very necessary. 3.1.3.3. Customer characteristics by frequency of shopping Survey results show that customers in major cities have a high demand for buying costumes with frequency, showing that the apparel retail market is very attractive for businesses in this field. 3.1.3.4. Customer characteristics according to the characteristics of the product or service delivery Survey results show that customers appreciate the criteria of designs and fabrics, but the satisfaction level with these criteria is not high. 3.2. Factors affecting apparel retail service competencies of SMEs 3.2.1. Macro environment factors 3.2.1.1. Demographic In large cities, with a large population, each demographic group representing different customer segments is large scale. This is the driving force for apparel retail SMEs to develop their service delivery competencies . However, if not done well, the consequences will be very serious because the pressure of competition of these businesses is enormous. 3.2.1.2. Economic environment Increasing household income in major cities is a big factor affecting brand awareness among Vietnamese consumers, while increasing consumer tastes and purchasing power (Binh and Terry, 2011). Therefore, changes of Vietnam's economic conditions also contribute to an increase in consumption of apparel products (Maruyama and Trung, 2012; Penz and Kirchler, 2012). 3.2.1.3. Political and legal environment Although the government has identified the textile and apparel industry as a key export-oriented economic sector with certain preferential policies. Since then, the orientation of the development of the domestic apparel retail industry has also been set up, but in reality, the official or regulatory documents are not consistent in creating conditions for the industry to develop deeply and broad or enabling market development. 3.2.1.4. Technology environment Due to the development of the telecommunications and Internet industry, Vietnam retail market has continuously grown in recent years (Breu, SalsbHIerg, and Tu, 2010). This creates opportunities for retailers to use high technology and services to gain more market share (Costello, Nash, Kavanagh, Symth, and Boyce, 2010). However, most small businesses of Vietnam's retail industry often ignore information technology (IT) in their management systems. Regarding Internet retailing, e-commerce has gradually grown and become popular with Vietnamese consumers, especially in urban areas (Ministry of Industry and Trade, 2009; Pham et al., 2011; Van Huy et al., 2012). 3.2.1.5. Social and cultural environment Vietnamese people often carefully choose essential products every day, however, they are easily attracted by information about promotional products, discounts. Therefore, small and medium-sized apparel retail businesses need to have strategies to improve their service delivery competencies towards bettering the implicit services, especially marketing, after-sales services, buying advice. 3.2.2. Micro environmental factors 3.2.2.1. Customer Vietnamese consumers are tending to increase consumer demand for high-quality apparel but at a lower price, and this change will definitely affect apparel retail SMEs. 3.2.2.2. Competitors One of the serious difficulties for SMEs of Vietnam's apparel retail market is the high level of competition. The survey showed that the level of competition from small domestic retailers is relatively higher than that of large domestic retailers and foreign retailers. Because most of Vietnam's privately owned retail stores are located in high-density residential areas next to each other on the crowding streets of big cities. 3.2.2.3. Suppliers in apparel retail delivery chains Surveys from retailers show that close association in business relationships helps them maintain a competitive advantage on retail market of Vietnamese apparel retailer. But it is also very difficult for SMEs to have strong links with suppliers. Therefore, Vietnam's small and medium-sized apparel retail enterprises have faced many challenges and difficulties to obtain quality and consistent products and resources directly from the domestic delivery chain. 3.3. Situation of resources and apparel retail service delivery competencies of SMEs 3.3.1. Situation of resources 3.3.1.1. Tangible resources The majority of SMEs of Vietnam's apparel retail market have difficulty accessing capital to set up and run their businesses. Poor financial ability is a factor that directly affects the reputation of businesses, the ability to be proactive in production and business activities, to the speed of consumption and competitiveness of enterprises, affecting. The goal is to minimize costs by actively exploiting and optimizing the use of input resources. 3.3.1.2. Intangible resources Surveying the sales performance of apparel retailers in big cities, managers often ask employees to handle all the necessary tasks in the operation of the store. However, in many cases, employees are not trained before they are employed. In addition, retail businesses often have difficulty recruiting employees to manage inventory, sales and promotions, and salespeople with the appropriate skills. 3.3.2. Situation of apparel retail services delivery competencies of SMEs 3.3.2.1. Ability to set vision and retail strategy The number of SMEs developing long-term retail strategies is not much. The formulation of retail strategy of SMEs in major cities of Vietnam is still quite passive, highly dependent on market fluctuations. 3.3.2.2. Research competencies and customer needs identification The research and identification of customer needs of SMEs in retail apparel has not been given due attention. They do not spend money to research professional customer needs, but rely entirely on intuition. 3.3.2.3. Competencies to build and develop service packages in accordance with customer needs Service packages cause customers to assess the business after they experience it, and make the decision to stay with the brand or store. SMEs have been interested in building a apparel retail service package to delivery customers. However, the level of service packages construction is different. Providing services to customers is completely spontaneous and there is no "methodical" plan. 3.3.2.4. Competencies in managing service delivery process The ability to manage the process of providing services is not too high but not too low because businesses also try to best serve customers, but financial conditions is one of the difficulties to can effectively manage the service delivery process. 3.3.2.5. Human resource management for sales and service delivery Not many SMEs in the retail of apparel always set criteria for service quality, thereby adjusting the behavior of salespeople and providing services accordingly. This is also the problem that makes retail competencies of apparel retail may be underestimated. Not all SMEs are interested in regular training to improve salespeople and service delivery. 3.3.2.6. Competencies to measure and evaluate service delivery results Apparel retail SMEs also pay little attention to measuring and evaluating service delivery results. They often simply measure the service delivery through customer complaints. Most businesses do not have a standard system to evaluate the results of service delivery, but only look at the problems encountered in the sales and service delivery process. 3.4. Customer's assessment of apparel retail services delivery competencies of SMEs in major cities of Vietnam 3.4.1. The level of customer satisfaction about the competencies to delivery apparel retail services 3.4.1.1. Frequency of purchases at apparel retail The level of customer satisfaction with service packages offered from traditional markets is the lowest compared to the remaining types of retail, in which information is the least of the 5 elements of the service package. As for specialized apparel and accessories stores and in supermarkets/shopping centers, there is not much difference, the main difference in 2 factors is 'goods' and 'current services' in the service pack. 3.4.1.2. The level of satisfaction with the store that buys most often It can be seen in the type of apparel retail, the 'convenience' feature is most appreciated by customers in supermarkets (67.9%) and the lowest is the traditional market type (25.8%). Customers prefer shopping at supermarkets/ shopping centers because of the 'no-pay' feature here. Regarding the quality of goods and services as well as the 'politeness' and genuine goods, showrooms are still highly appreciated by customers compared to the remaining types of apparel retail stores. Besides, with the characteristics of many designs, reasonable prices, diverse choices, the street shops are still the most dominant. As for traditional markets, this type of retail is considered to be cheap but the quality of goods and services is poor, but the traditional market also attracts a relative number of customers by price. Reasonable, customers have many choices. 3.4.2. Evaluation of apparel retail service package of small and medium enterprises In general, customers in major cities show a higher level of satisfaction in clothing and accessories stores, they feel more interested in shopping experience here. In particular, customers are more than satisfied with the goods at these points of sale, showing that specialized stores (one brand, many brands and showrooms) have met the needs of the majority of customers. they are towards. However, there are still many aspects that need to be improved in order to achieve a higher level of satisfaction and more frequent shoppers' frequency, in both specialized and general stores. 3.4.3. Relationship between service package and customer satisfaction with apparel SMEs in major cities of Vietnam The regression model was established with a dependent variable that is customer satisfaction (HL) and 5 independent variables as Goods (HH), Support Facilities (PT), Necessary Information (TT), Explicit services (DVH) and Implicit services (DVA). In particular, Crobach alpha coefficient of 5 components in service packages of apparel retail SMEs are: Goods (0.864), Support facilities (0.788), Information (0.782), Explicit services (0.867) and Implicit services (0.661). Considering the correlation coefficient of the total (corrected) variable of the observed variables, only the variable DVH1 (Store with various payment methods) is unsatisfactory (0.115), the remaining variables are> 0.30 (Hair et al. 2006), therefore, only DVH1 is excluded. Thus, the remaining 25 variables are used in exploratory factor analysis. For the satisfaction scale also achieved reliability with Cronbach's Alpha coefficient of 0.789, the observed variables all had a correlation coefficient of the total greater than 0.3, showing that the scale of customer satisfaction rating was trusted necessary. After eliminating observed variables with small factor load factor (<0.5), using the principal component analysis method (PCA) with perpendicular rotation (varimax) showed that KMO coefficient is greater than 0,5 (0.855), the Bartlett test is statistically significant (p-value <0.05), the variance explained by the observed observed variables is greater than 50% (66.756%). The observed variables of the independent variables in the model converge into 6 factors such as the theoretical model and do not need adjustments (appendix). Correlation analysis results With the initial hypothesized relationship between the 5 components of apparel retail service package and customer satisfaction: Test results show that these relationships are valuable about theory. Therefore, 5 components of apparel retail service package and customer satisfaction are in the same direction. Regression analysis results The multiple regression model is run simultaneously with all independent variables. The results show that the model of customer satisfaction with service packages delivery by apparel retail SMEs is statistically significant. The analyzed data shows that there are 4 out of 5 accepted research hypotheses. The regression equation written according to the standardized coefficient is expressed as follows: HL = 0.389 * HH + 0.113 * PT + 0.246 * DVH + 0.190 * DVA + ε (Note: The TT variable is not statistically significant (p-value> 0.05) so it is not written in this equation.) 3.5. Situation of apparel retail service delivery competencies of some SMEs of Vietnam 3.5.1 The retail delivery competencies of H&H Luxury Fashion Joint Stock Company 3.5.1.1. Overview of H&H Luxury Fashion Joint Stock Company Production and business results Although the company has many competitors, the period 2016 - 2019 is the period of high economic growth. Therefore, sales of the company are very positive. 3.5.1.2. Status of resources a. Financial competencies The company's capital sources include equity and loans. In which loans accounted for more than 50%. In 2016, the business capital of the company was VND 16.34 billion and remained unchanged until 2017. But in 2018, the owner decided to increase the amount of capital to expand production. b. The infrastructure Currently, the company has 6 processing factories with 40 workers, 1 main sewing factory located in Linh Dam with an area of 500m2. H&H's shop has an area of over 100m2 with modern and luxurious decoration so that when customers come to H&H, they always feel like being served thoughtfully as a true "god". 3.5.1.3. Situation of system and competencies providing retail services of H&H Luxury Fashion Joint Stock Company Strategic orientation and market of enterprises: H&H's main customers are office ladies with ages 20 - 45, who prefer polite and luxurious style. Service pack of businesses Goods: Diversity, abundance, many designs, designs, colors with polite style, elegance and sophistication. The products used durable materials, relatively high prices. In general, the company's products have the characteristics of a high-end brand and are always updated with new trends in the world. Support Facilities: With 2 showrooms in Hanoi, located in big, busy streets, polite showroom space, displaying many product samples. Information: the company offers main and limited seasonal collections or events with high-end designers. H&H enhances the uniqueness of its products thanks to specific collections, introducing collections through celebrity photos. Explicit services: The company has built a full service system in stores from reception to marketing services to create customers who enjoy attentive care. After-sales care services are also implemented quite well. Implicit service: With 2 large showrooms in Hanoi, convenient transportation and shopping, customers are also attracted to the store. Parking is secure right in front of the showroom, so customers do not have to complain about this factor. 3.4.1.3. Status of service delivery competencies of H&H Luxury Fashion Joint Stock Company a. Competencies to set vision and plan retail strategies H&H's main customers are office ladies with ages 20 - 45, who prefer polite and luxurious style. The company is always conscious of developing social relationships with customers and maintaining long-term relationships with them. That is the factor leading to the increase in the number of loyal customers and also the competitive advantage of businesses in the garment retail market in Vietnam. b. Research competencies and customer needs identification The company has focused on observing, tracking the number of customers entering the store daily. This is done simply by counting the number of customers who enter the store by day. However, the market research and customer needs are not regular and not done in a professional, professional way when only assessing the market through observation and conducting surveys with customers. . This makes it difficult for businesses to grasp the needs of customers to be able to devise an appropriate retail strategy. Besides, the company has only planned to sell in the short term but has not focused on investing in building a long-term retail strategy. c. Competencies to build and develop service packages suitable to customers' needs Goods: Diversity, abundance, many designs, designs, colors with polite style, elegance, sophistication, with specific characteristics of high-class brands and always updated with new trends in the world. Support facilities: polite showroom space, displaying many product models, atmosphere and product display, giving customers new experiences of costumes and fashion accessories, Information: company offering major and limited seasonal collections or events with high-end designers. Explicit services: The company has built a full service supply system in stores from reception to marketing services in order for customers to enjoy attentive care. Implicit service: With 2 large showrooms in Hanoi, convenient transportation and shopping, customers are also attracted to the store. Parking is secure right in front of the showroom, so customers do not have to complain about this factor. d. Competencies in managing service delivery process The company has a vast product channel consumption system. Although there are only 2 stores introducing products in Hanoi and now opening more showrooms in Hai Phong, Thanh Hoa, Quang Ninh and Thai Nguyen, the company has strongly developed its online distribution channel and online sales collaborators. Next, it helps the company easily bring products to consumers, and expand the position of its products. e. Human resource management for sales and service provision To provide the best products to customers, the company has trained employees in its stores, from product development to store management. Through these training programs, the company teaches its employees how to best serve their customers, attract their attention, develop good relationships with customers, and ensure that customers have the experience positive experience. f. Competencies to measure and evaluate service delivery results Through the provision of new designs and products to the market on a seasonal basis or collections by event and time. With a frequency of 1 month/ time. The company also pays great attention to product quality, meticulous in choosing the fabric to create luxurious products, worthy of customer expectations. H&H also innovates and ensures product quality. 3.5.2. Service delivery competencies of Tan Pham Gia Co., Ltd. 3.5.2.1. Overview of Tan Pham Gia Co., Ltd. The process of formation and development Tan Pham Gia Co., Ltd was established on May 8, 2003, during 2003-2005, the company focused on producing and trading clothing products. Since 2006, the company has started to produce its own branded products, Milvus and Happy Hoop, which are distributed to retail and supermarket channels. Production and business results In the period of 2016 - 2019, the total revenue of Tan Pham Gia is not high but always has an impressive growth rate of 118.7% in 2018. So far, the company has been operating for 16 years so it is quite stable at this stage. 3.5.2.2. Status of resources * Financial competencies Equity te

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