Tóm tắt Luận án The factors affecting strategic management accounting implementation and its the impact on the operating performance of manufacturing firms in Viet Nam

Business environment changes due to the process of economic cooperation among countries, along with achievements in the field of information technology. It is this reason that has led to significant changes in corporate management and organization. These changes have indirectly affected management accounting, especially the information function within the organization. In fact, there has been a need for management accounting needs to be improved to overcome the inadequacies of traditional management accounting. Therefore, SMA has received widespread support as an approach to take a more strategic role for management accounting. Some studies support the application of SMA such as: Simmonds (1981); Bromwich (1990); Bromwich and Bhimani (1989); Guilding, Cavens and Tayes (2000); Shank and Govindarajan (1993); Kaplan et al (1996); Shah et al. (2011); Chenhall (2003);

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arriers to implementation of SMA. 1.1.1.1 Research on accounting techniques for strategic management in enterprises The first set of SMA technical lists was proposed by Guilding et al. (2000). The authors use the criteria set out for specific SMA such as: The information provided by SMA must be the business activities of the enterprise in the long term in the future, and SMA must focus on disclosing. casing objects outside the business. Guilding et al. (2000) put together twelve lists in the SMA technical set, which is considered to be the first standard SMA technique in the SMA study. The second set of SMA technical lists was proposed by the authors of Cravens et al. (2001). This list is inherited from Guilding et al. (2000) and Activity based costing (ABC) techniques; Benchmarking; and integrating the balance scorecard (BSC) measurement and eliminating the branding technique from the original list of technical sets. The next list of 14 SMA techniques is proposed by Cinquini et al. (2007). This set of techniques compared to Cravens et al. (2001) adds a technique of customer profit analysis. The list of SMA techniques developed by researcher Cadez et al. (2008) includes sixteen SMA techniques, which add two new SMA techniques compared to Cinquini and et al (2007). The list of Cadez et al. (2008) is considered by many scholars to be relatively complete with SMA techniques and is used as a background in many topics such as: Al-Mawali (2015); Ojua (2016), The subject of Shah et al. (2011) in the theoretical overview of SMA techniques has listed a smaller number of SMA techniques including 8 techniques. Alsoboa et al. (2015) identified a total of 19 SMA techniques from previous studies. 1.1.1.2 The studies support the application of strategic management accounting Business environment changes due to the process of economic cooperation among countries, along with achievements in the field of information technology. It is this reason that has led to significant changes in corporate management and organization. These changes have indirectly affected management accounting, especially the information function within the organization. In fact, there has been a need for management accounting needs to be improved to overcome the inadequacies of traditional management accounting. Therefore, SMA has received widespread support as an approach to take a more strategic role for management accounting. Some studies support the application of SMA such as: Simmonds (1981); Bromwich (1990); Bromwich and Bhimani (1989); Guilding, Cavens and Tayes (2000); Shank and Govindarajan (1993); Kaplan et al (1996); Shah et al. (2011); Chenhall (2003); Yek, Penney and Seow (2007); AlMaryani and Sadik (2012); Branka Ramljak and Andrijana Rogošić (2012); Noordin et al (2015); Oboh et al. (2017). 1.1.1.3 The Studies on barriers to implementation of SMA Barriers to the development of SMA according to research by Sulaiman et al. (2004), there are many barriers facing businesses when applying SMA. The first barrier that can be mentioned is the opposition to change of management accounting staff such as the study of Bromwich and Bhimanni (1994); Sulaiman et al (2004); Shank (2007). The second barrier hindering the development of new accounting techniques is the lack of professional knowledge, awareness and support of management, found in the research of Sulaiman et al. (2004), Ansari and et al (2007); Langfield-Smith (2008); Almaryani et al (2012); Aken and Okeye (2012), Fagbemi et al (2012); Yap et al. (2013); Reza Ghasemi et al (2015); Ojua (2016). The third barrier belongs to the challenge of large investment costs when implementing SMA techniques such as target costs, BSC and ABC were also by Sulaiman et al (2004); Almaryani et al (2012); Fagbemi et al (2013); Ojua (2016) mentioned in this study. Whether the application of SMA can be successful in enterprises according to Akenbor and Okoye (2012) depends on the characteristics of enterprises. The results of this barrier are also tested in Almarynai et al. (2012), Ahmad (2012). The final barrier is government policies according to Chenhall and Langfeld-Smith (1998). 1.1.2 Studies on the factors affecting the implementation of strategic management accounting 1.1.2.1.Case study studies of perceived environment uncertainty (PEU) affecting SMA implementation Achrol et al. (1988) PEU is a perception of the volatile business environment of executing decision making. A number of topics have found the influence of PEU on applying SMA in enterprises such as Chenhall et al (1986); Hwang (2005); Ahmad (2012); Al-Mawali (2015); Noordin et al. (2015), but a report in Guildling and McManus (2001) conducted in Australia shows that PEU has very little effect on SMA implementation such as Hoque (2004); Ojra (2014). 1.1.2.2.The study of business strategy (OS) factors affecting the implementation of SMA A business strategy is the development of long-term business goals of the future and planning ways to accomplish the business goals (Ojra, 2014). Some authors have found the impact of business strategies on SMA such as Guilding (1999); Hoque (2004); Hwang (2005); Cinquini et al (2010); Tuan Mat (2010); Fowzia (2011); Aksoylu and Aykan (2013); Ojra (2014); Alsoboa (2015) and Michael et al (2017). 1.1.2.3.The Studies of organizational structure (OSTR) affecting SMA implementation The organizational structure of an enterprise is the model and the relationship between the functional departments in the enterprise (Macy et al., 1995). Some authors have found positive effects of the decentralized management structure on SMA implementation such as Hwang (2005); Waweru (2008); Tuan Mat (2010); Dik (2011), and author Abdul et al. (2011). However, the Ojra (2014) report did not see the effect of OSTR on the implementation of SMA in enterprises 1.1.2.4.The Studies on technological factors affecting the implementation of the SMA Technology is an internal element of an enterprise, and technology is also an important factor affecting the change of MA (Tuan Mat, 2010). Some topics have found relationships SMA promote the implementation of technologies such as Otley (1980); Haldma et al (2002); Choe (2004); Tuan Mat (2010) and Ojra (2014). The Studying other factors affecting SMA implementation Corporate culture includes standards that regulate conduct and ethical values and human behaviors in enterprises. The positive effect of corporate culture factors on accounting has been demonstrated in the study of 84 manufacturing enterprises in Turkey by Erserim (2012). The accounting staff qualification factor positively affecting the organization of management accounting in enterprises is found in some topics of Halma and Laats (2002); Al-Omiri (2003); McChlery et al (2004); Ismail and King (2007) and Ahmad (2012). 1.1.3.Research on the effects of implementation of the SMA to the performance of the enterprise Alpkan et al. (2005) have identified operational performance that is used by managers to assess the quantity and quality of results, and is also a way for managers to recognize business success. SMA provides the basis for managers to make more effective decisions thereby contributing to improving the performance of enterprises (Chenhall, 2003). The first empirical evidence on the positive association of SMA and performance has been found in a number of topics such as Subramanian et al. (1998); Chenhall et al (1998); Hoque (2004); Cadez and Guilding (2008); Al-Mawali et al (2012), Cadez et al (2012); Ayksoy and Aykan (2013); Al Mawali et al (2013); Ojra (2014), Alsoboa et al (2015); Michael et al. (2017); and Abolfazl et al (2017). However, in Almari (2018), the survey of 103 listed companies in Malaysia shows that the implementation of SMA does not affect the performance of this survey enterprise. 1.2. Previous studies in Vietnam 1.2.1.Studies on the content of strategic management accounting. In Vietnam to date, there have not been many in-depth studies on SMA in terms of both theoretical and empirical grounds. Some domestic topics on SMA content such as Doan Ngoc Que et al (2014); Nguyen Manh Thieu (2016); Do Thi Huong Thanh et al (2016) Huynh Loi (2017); Huynh Duc Long (2018) Huynh Loi (2018); Author Nguyen Anh Hien et al (2019). Topics about SMA in Vietnam in recent years are mainly theoretical orientation such as SMA concept, SMA formation history, SMA content, and orientations in SMA research and training, in order to timely provision of documents on SMA for the new demand for management accounting in Vietnamese enterprises at present. 1.2.2.The Studies on factors influencing SMA implementation. In Vietnam, the development history of MA in general and of SMA in particular is still new compared to other countries in the world. However, in the country, there have been a number of topics on factors affecting SMA in enterprises, such as Doan Ngoc Phi Anh (2012); Pham Ngoc Toan et al (2018). Some topics related to factors affecting MA in manufacturing enterprises considered by the author as a basis for theoretical formulation include: Tran Ngoc Hung (2016); Bui Tien Dung et al (2017). 1.2.3.Research the impact of strategic management accounting on performance. In the process of integration with international accounting, Vietnamese enterprises have gradually applied modern accounting techniques suitable to the business environment. The policy of opening up the economy, many joint venture enterprises and foreign enterprises were established in Vietnam. Therefore, these foreign enterprises bring the technology of SMA applied at their enterprises, and SMA is introduced in Vietnam. Implementation of SMA affects the performance found in studies in Vietnam such as Doan Ngoc Phi Anh (2012); Trinh Hiep Thien (2019). 1.3.Review previous studies and identify research gaps 1.3.1.Reviews of previous studies 1.3.1.1.Reviews of foreign studies Through an overview of foreign topics, the author found that the implementation of SMA in enterprises was increasingly noticed and supported because the inadequacies of traditional management accounting did not meet the needs of the government. Strategic decision making during the open competition period. Some topics have systematic theories, content, techniques of SMA and discoveries about factors affecting the implementation of SMA. But now these topics are few and mostly implemented in countries with developed economies (Ojra, 2014; Oboh et al. 2017). While the impact of management accounting on performance has been proven by many topics, the in-depth study of the impact of SMA implementation on performance has been assessed by scholars as not much, More in-depth topics are needed to test this influence (Sener et al., 2012). On the other hand, the topics on factors affecting the implementation of SMA are also assessed to be limited and investigated in many countries with different circumstances (Ojra, 2014). Moreover, the results in the foreign projects implemented are contradictory, which means that the factor that was determined to affect the SMA in this topic, but was removed in other research. Reviews of domestic studies In recent times, under the strong development of technology and great competitive pressure in the market and the trend of implementing SMA is increasing in many countries. In Vietnam, a number of authors have begun research on SMA such as Doan Ngoc Que and Associates (2014); Nguyen Manh Thieu (2016); Do Thi Huong Thanh et al (2016); Huynh Loi (2017, 2018); Huynh Duc Long (2018); Nguyen Anh Hien et al (2019). But, these topics have only done research in theory, research orientation, and training. In addition, topics on factors affecting SMA implementation have been implemented by some authors such as Doan Ngoc Phi Anh (2012); Pham Ngoc Toan et al (2018). However, these topics investigated only a few factors, not many specific factors for changing the role of MA to SMA such as technology, corporate culture, business strategy. , ... On the other hand, studying the impact of SMA on performance has been surveyed by a number of topics such as Doan Ngoc Phi Anh (2012), Trinh Hiep Thien (2019), but these topics are mostly surveyed in businesses with many different types of production, trade and services. Therefore, there has not been a separate survey for Vietnamese manufacturing enterprises to determine whether the implementation of SMA will have an impact on performance. Identify research gaps and research directions of the thesis From the review of the study, it is necessary to test more in more intensive topics in countries with different economic conditions, to confirm the role of SMA in performance. Very little research in the same practical context as Vietnam. At the same time, the research results differed from foreign topics on the factors affecting the implementation of SMA, and according to the author's research review, no studies have conducted the impact test. of the factors that implement SMA and does the implementation of SMA techniques really affect the performance of manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. From the gap of the analytical research above, the thesis conducts the topic "factors affecting the implementation of SMA and its impact on the performance of manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam" is a research issue. and is a new research direction in SMA research in Vietnam. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 1. CHAPTER 2: THEORETICAL BASIS 2.1 Some general issues about strategic management accounting 2.1.1 Overview of strategic management accounting 2.1.1.1 Definitions of strategic management 2.1.1.2 Definitions of strategic management accounting 2.1.1.3. The roles of strategic management accounting 2.1.1.4 The contents of strategic management accounting 2.1.1.5 Techniques of strategic management accounting 2.2 Organisational performance 2.3 Factors affecting the implementation of strategic management accounting 2.3.1 External factors affecting the SMA 2.3.2 Internal factors that influence the implementation of the SMA 2.3.2.1 Organizational structure 2.3.2.2 Organisational Technology (OT) 2.3.2.3 Organizational Strategy 2.3.2.4 Factor of corporate culture 2.3.2.5 Factor of accounting management qualifications 2.4. The theoretical background to explain the factors that affect implementation of SMA affects the performance 2.4.1 The Contingecy theory 2.4.2 The institutional theory 2.4.3 Upper echelons theory SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Overview of research methods and processes 3.1.1 Research Methods The research method used by the author to implement in this topic is the estimation method of quantitative combination or also known as the composite estimation method. Inside:: 3.1.2 Research process The research process is carried out through steps of modeling, adjusting construction of scales, collecting data, verifying reliability of scales, analyzing EFA and CFA, testing models and hypotheses.. The quantitative research process combines this qualitative research with specific steps to be done” 3.2 Research model, research hypotheses. 3.2.1 Research model proposed The model was developed based on the original research model of Cadez and Guilding (2008), the author consulted experts and studies supporting factors affecting SMA, the model was adjusted to Affective factors in accordance with the conditions of manufacturing enterprises in Vietnam. The study proposes two new factors, which are not included in the SMA studies, the qualifications of accountants and corporate culture. 3.2.2 Research hypotheses Hypothesis Hypothetical contents Expected sign H1 “Factors perceiving uncertainty about the business environment have a positive impact on SMA implementation” + H2 “The decentralized organizational structure manages the impact of the arrival of the SMA + H3 The higher technology adoption affects the implementation of SMA” + H4 “Enterprises implement an Prospector business strategy in the same direction as SMA implementation” + H5 “The higher the corporate culture factor, the greater the influence on the implementation of SMA” + H6 “Qualified staff management accounting in the same way as high impact to implement SMA” + H7 “Implementing SMA has a positive impact on the organization's performance” + 3.3 Qualitative research design and build scale Qualitative research is used for two main purposes: (i) Identifying factors affecting SMA impact on performance; (ii) Complete the measurement scale for implementation of the SMA, performance and influencing factors. 3.4 Quantitative research design 3.4.1.1 Preliminary quantitative research Preliminary quantitative research is conducted to ensure that the scales are reliable, and correct the error of the question before conducting a formal investigation. In addition, Green et al. (1988) were used to estimate response rates as well as to determine the sample sizes of official quantitative studies. Therefore, preliminary quantitative research is considered as an indispensable step when implementing survey tools. 3.4.1.2 Official quantitative research Official quantitative research is conducted to determine the level of the influence of factors on the implementation of SMA affecting the performance of Vietnamese manufacturing enterprises. SUMMARY OF CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Qualitative research results 4.2 Preliminary quantitative research results 4.2.1 Test the reliability of the scale Preliminary quantitative research was conducted with 8 factors and 41 observed variables, cronbach's Alpha analysis results showed that most of the scales met the conditions such as Cronbach's Alpha coefficient ≥0.6 or higher, correlation total variable ≥ 0.3. However, there are three observed variables excluded in the study because the total correlation coefficient less than 0.3 is PEU6; OS5 and OS6. 4.2.2 Preliminary quantitative EFA analysis results Analysis of discoverable factors extracted six factors with KMO coefficient = 0.78, Sig value = 0.00, Eigenvalues coefficient = 1.041 and" extracted variance = 68.170%. Therefore, 6 independent factors achieved Requirements when analyzing EFA factor. The result of EFA analysis depends on performing SMA with KMO coefficient = 0.911, Sig value = 0.00 <0.05, Eiguevalues coefficient = 5.405 and extracted variance = 54.052%.. 4.3 Official quantitative results 4.3.1 Statistical sample research Statistics of gender, age, qualifications, location, type of business, manufacturing sector and region 4.3.2 Inspection scales 4.3.3 Analysis EFA The next step in formal quantitative research is EFA analysis. The results of EFA analysis are presented in Table 4.16. The EFA analysis results extracted 8 factors with KMO coefficient = 0.938> 0.5; Sig = 0.00 1 and extracted variance = 69,200%> 50%. Therefore, 8 factors met the requirements when analyzing EFA. 4.3.4 CFA The research model consists of 8 factors and 37 observed variables after satisfying the conditions of EFA analysis to continue CFA analysis. The condition for analyzing CFA model used in the study is CMIN / DF ≤ 2; TLI, CFI ≥ 0.9; and RMSE ≤ 0.08, the model conclusion is consistent with the research data. CFA analysis result of CMIN / DF index = 1,664 0.9, CFI = 0.939> 0.9; RMSEA = 0.47 <0.08. The critical model satisfies all the set indicators, so the model of this topic is highly relevant to the research data. Therefore, the CFA analysis results of the critical model shows that the scales of the model confirm that convergence, unidirectional values, discriminatory values, reliability and are consistent with the survey data observations. 4.4 Testing SEM linear structure model and research hypotheses. 4.4.1 Testing model by SEM model SEM model gives df = 607 degrees of freedom; Chi index - Square = 1006,909; Chi-Square index / df = 1,659 0.9; CFI = 0.939> 0.9; And RMSEA = 0.047 <0.08 and P = 0.00. The indicators of the research data are eligible for SEM analysis, so the model is suitable for market data. The results of estimating coefficient ᵦ of the research model are positive, showing the positive influence between the factors on SMA implementation and between SMA implementation and performance. The results of estimating the relationship in the study show that the relationships among the factors in the model are statistically significant. The above research results show that the concepts in the research such as PEU, business strategy, enterprise technology, corporate culture, staff qualifications, organizational structure all have a positive effect on the implementation. SMA, and its impact on the performance of Vietnamese manufacturing enterprises. Therefore, this result can be concluded that the concepts in the model reach theoretical value. 4.4.2 Testing and estimating research model by Bootstrap Teststrap test results showed that the coefficient of deviation (Bisa) and standard deviation error (SE-Bias) appeared but not great. Absolute value index CR <2. It can be concluded that the standard deviation is very small, not statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Therefore, with Bootstrap-tested data, it is possible to draw a reliable research model conclusion. 4.4.3 Test results of research hypotheses. From the results of model testing and bootstrap testing in SEM analysis, the hypotheses in the topic are statistically significant. In which, there is one hypothesis with the highest p value of 0.064 significance level of 10%, the remaining hypotheses reach the significance level of 5%. Therefore, with this result it can be concluded that 7 hypotheses in the topic are accepted. The index β of the relationships between the factors has a positive sign, showing the positive effects of the factors (Details of results are presented in Table 4.1). 4.5 Discuss the research results 4.5.1 Discuss the main findings from the study The results obtained from manufacturing enterprises show that enterprises have applied SMA in the production and business process with the average value of the ASMA implementation scale is 3,481. R2 coefficient = 47% of OP In the SEM model, the level of interpretation of the SMA implementation factor that directly affects the OP factor is 47% at the 1% significance level. The relationship indirectly affecting OP through the mediating variable implementing SMA has coefficient R2 = 77.6% in SEM model. Considering the relationship of the six factors affecting SMA implementation. The effect of the CULT variable is strongest with β normalized to be 0.287, followed by the PEU factor with β normalized to be 0.255; The third strong influence is the OS factor with β being 0.179; The factor OT has the fourth most powerful influence with a standardized β index of 0.163; The OSTR factor is the fourth most influential factor with a standardized β index of 0,108; and QUAL has the smallest impact in the model with a standardized β of 0.096. 4.5.2 Factors influencing SMA implementation 4.5.2.1 The corporate culture factor influences SMA implementation The results of the thesis are also consistent with expectations built on contingecy theory, institutional theory and upper echelons theory of the important role of corporate culture in organizing the implementation of SMA in manufacturing enterprises. (with the index β is 0.287). This result means that when a production enterprise has a consensus of support among its employees, departments, and managers, it is easy for them to formulate business strategies, business goals, as well. such as possible administration tools to control the implementation of these strategies and the SMA is also a tool for governance. This result is also consistent with the topic of Erserim (2012), Tran Ngoc Hung (2016) 4.5.2.2 The PEU factor influences the implementation of the SMA. This result supports the hypothesis that the higher the PEU in Vietnamese manufacturing enterprises, the greater the ability to apply SMA. The thesis results are consistent with the previous topic of Ojra (2014) in Palestin, the study of Al-Mawali (2015) in Jordan. The results of this research were also explored in a recent topic by Kalkhouran et al (2017) in Malaysia, and by Pham Ngoc Toan et al (2018) in Vietnam. 4.5.2.3 Organizational factors affecting SMA implementation The results also indicate the important role of business strategy in explaining the implementation of SMA in manufacturing enterprises (standardized β index is 0.245). The conclusion of the topic is consistent with the expectation in the random theory of SMA implementation in manufacturing enterprises, which tends to be motivated by an aggressive business strategy. In addition, this result is also tested in the subject of Cadez and Guilding (2008) when the study confirms that attack strategy is an important factor affecting enterprise innovation. Similar r

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