Bài giảng topic 1 the differences of tenses

1. Hành động đã xảy ra không biết rõ thời gian:

I have visited New York twice.

2. Hỏi về thời gian quá khứ dùng kèm với since when, how long :

- Since when have you started school?

3. Bắt đầu một tình huống:

- Have you met Tom recently?

Yes, I have.

4. Dùng kèm for: Hành động đã xảy ra và còn lưu lại trong hiện tại:

John has lived in that house for 20 years. (He still lives there.)

5. Dùng kèm since trong mệnh đề chính:

He has played tennis since he was 11.

 

 

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Topic 1: THE DIFFERENCES OF TENSES The differences between present simple and present progressive: Các động từ trạng thái (stative verb) ở bảng sau không được chia ở thể tiếp diễn khi chúng là những động từ tĩnh diễn đạt trạng thái cảm giác của hoạt động tinh thần hoặc tính chất của sự vật, sự việc. know : believe hear see smell wish understand hate love like want sound have need appear seem taste own Present simple Present progressive 1. Hành động có tính bền vững, luôn luôn đúng theo thói quen, phong tục và khả năng: - I work in New York. 2. Nhận thức, tình cảm, tình trạng xảy ra lúc đang nói: I know you are busy now. 3. Thời khoá biểu, lịch trình các chương trình: The train for Hanoi leaves at 7.30 tonight. 4. Chân lý hiển nhiên: - It rains a lot in HCM City. 1. Hành động có tính tạm thời, không thường xuyên: (today, this week, this year...) - I’m working in New York for a few weeks. 2. Không dùng thì này với các hoạt động nhận thức, tình cảm, tình trạng, sở hữu, tồn tại: see, think, believe, feel, look smell, taste, hear, expect, assume… 3. Kế hoạch, sự sắp xếp cho tương lai gần: - She is arriving at 11 o’clock. 4. Dùng kèm với ALWAYS diễn tả sự phàn nàn: He is always coming to class late. Give the correct form of these verbs: (Present simple and present progressive) Please be quiet, I ......................... (try) to concentrate. I ................... (not/belong) to a political party. Hurry! The bus ................... (come). I ................... (not/want) to miss it. The River Nile ................... (flow) into the Mediterranean. The river ................... (flow) very fast today – much faster than usual. ................... (it/ever/snow) in India? We usually ................... (grow) vegetables in our garden but this year we ................... (not.grow) any. A: Can you drive? B: No, but I ................... (learn). My father ................... (teach) me. You can borrow my umbrella. I ................... (not/need) it at the moment. (at a party) I usually ................... (enjoy) parties but I ................... (not/enjoy) this one very much. George says he’s 80 years old but i ................... (not/believe) him. Ron is in London at the moment. He ................... (stay) at the Hilton Hotel. He usually ................... (stay) at the Hilton Hotel when he’s in London. Look! It’s ......................... (snow). “Where ................ your father (come) from?” “He ................ (come) from Scotland”. If you need money, why ................ you(not/get) ................ a job? I ................ (play) the piano, but i ................ (not/play) very well. II. The differences between intended future and future simple: Intended future Future simple 1. Ý định đã được dự trù, sắp xếp trước khi nói: - I’m going to visit New York this Winter. 2. Sự suy đoán chắc chắn dựa vào căn cứ hiện tại: - There are a lot of clouds. I think it is going to rain. 1. Ý định ngay khi nói hay hành động sẽ xảy ra ở tương lai không phụ thuộc vào ý định: - He will come here tomorrow. 2. Ý kiến, lời hứa, hy vọng, phát biểu về một hành động trong tương lai: (think, promise, hope, expect..) - Wait here and I will get you a drink. - I think you will pass the exam. Give the correct form of these verbs: (Intended future and Future simple) Put the verb into the correct form using will or going to. A: I’ve got a terrible headache. B: Have you? Wait there and I ................................. (get) an aspirin for you. A: Why are you filling that bucket with water? B: I ................................. (wash) the car. A: I’ve decided to repaint this room. B: Oh, haven’t you? What colour ................................. (you/paint) it. A: Look! There’s smoke coming out of that house. It’s on fire. B: Good heavens! I ................................. (call) the fire-brigade immediately. A: The ceiling in this room doesn’t look very safe, does it? B: No, it looks as if it ................................. (fall) down. A: Where are you going? Are you going shopping? B: Yes, I ................................. (buy) something for dinner. A: I can’t work out how to use this camera. B: It’s quite easy. I ................................. (show) you. A: What would you like to drink - tea or coffee? B: I ................................. (have) tea, please. A: Has George decided on what to do when he leaves school? B: Oh yes. Evething is planned. He ................................. (have) a holiday for few weeks and then he ................................. (start) a computer programming course. A: Did you post that letter for me? B: Oh, I’m sorry. I completely forgot. I ................................. (do) it now. A: What shall we have for dinner? B: I don’t know. I can’t make up my mind. A: Come on, hurry up. Make a decision. B: Okay then. We ................................. (have) chicken. Jack: We need some bread for lunch. Ben: Oh, do we? I ................................. (go) to the shop and get some. I feel like a walk. Before he goes out. Ben talk to Jane: Ben: I ................................. (get) some bread. Do you want anything from the shop? Jane: Yes, I need some envelopes. Ben: Okay, i ................................. (get) you some. John has to go to the airport to catch a plane. He hasn’t got a car. John: Alan, can you take me to the airport this evening? Alan: Of course I ................................. (take) you. I’d be delighted. III. Present simple and Future simple trong mệnh đề điều kiện và mệnh đề thời gian chỉ tương lai: - Mệnh đề thời gian: S +Will + V1+ When/ while/ after/ before/ as/until + S + V (Present simple) When/ while/ after/ before/ as/until + S + V (Present simple), S +Will + V1 When he comes tomorrow, we will welcome him. - Mệnh đề điều kiện: S +Will + V1+ if + S + V (Present simple) If + S + V (Present simple),S +Will + V1 If she visits me next week, we will have dinner together. Give the correct form of these verbs: A. All the sentences in this exercise are about the future. Put the verbs into the correct form: will/won’t or the simple present (I do). Before you ......................... (leave), don’t forget to shut the windows. I ......................... (phone) you as soon as I ......................... (arrive) in London. Please don’t touch anything before the police ......................... (come). Everyone ......................... (be) very surprised if he ......................... (pass) the exams. When you ......................... (see) Brian again, you ......................... (not/recognise) him. We ......................... (not/start) dinner until Jack ......................... (arrive). ......................... (you/be) lonely without me while i ......................... (be) away? If I ......................... (need) any help, I ......................... (ask) you. Come on! Hurry up! Ann ......................... (be) annoyed if we ......................... (be) late. B. Make one sentence from two sentences: I’ll find some where to live. Then I’ll give you my address. I ................................................... when It’s going to start raining. Let’s go out before that. Let’s ................................................... before I’m going to do the shopping. Then i’ll come straight back home. ................................................... after You’ll be in London next month. You must come and see me then. ................................................... when We’ll make our decision. Then we ‘ll let you know. ................................................... as soon as C. Put in When or if: I’m going to Paris next week. .............. I’m there, I hope to visit a friend of mine. Tom might phone this evening. .............. he does, can you take a message? I think he’ll get the job. I’ll be very surprised .............. he doesn’t get it. I hope to be there by 10.30. But .............. i’m not there, don’t wait for me. I’m going shopping. .............. you want anything, i can get it for you. I think i’ll go home now. I’m feeling very tired. I think i’ll go straight to bed .............. I get home. I’m going away for a few days. I’ll phone you .............. I get back. I want you to come to the party but.............. you don’t want to come, you needn’t. We’ll go out when the rain (stop) …………………………. Miss Helen (help) …………… you if she (finish) …………… that letter tomorrow. IV. The differences between simple past and past progressive: simple past past progressive 1. Hành động đã xảy ra biết rõ thời gian hay hỏi về thời gian quá khứ: - I visited New York last Winter. - When did you meet him? 2. Nhiều hành động xảy ra kế tiếp nhau: - When he arived home, opened the door, and entered the house. 3. Hành động đã xảy ra một khoảng thời gian trong quá khứ: - He worked here for four years. 4. Dùng kèm với when: Hành động bất ngờ xen vào hành động đang diễn ra, xảy ra sau và kết thúc trước: - When he came , we were talking. - He had an accident while he was crossing the street. 1. Sự chuyển biến dần của sự việc hay trạng thái: - It was getting dark. - She was becoming fatter and fatter. 2. Nhiều hành động xảy ra song song: - Ann was writing a letter in her room while her mother was watching T.V Hành động đã xảy ra tại một thời điểm trong quá khứ: - He worked here at 3 pm yesterday. 4. Dùng kèm với when và while: Hành động xảy ra trước, liên tục và kết thúc sau hoặc chấm dứt khi bị hành động khác xen vào: - When he came , we were talking. - He had an accident while he was crossing the street. Use the simple past or the past continuous/ progressive tense: George ................... (fall) off the ladder while he ................... (paint) the ceiling. Last night I ................... (read) in bed when suddenly I ................... (hear) a scream. She (come) into the room, (open) the window, (turn) on the light, and (begin) to read a newspaper. Ann ................... (wait) for me when I ................... (arrive). I ................... (not/drive) very fast when the accident ................... (happen). I ................... (break) a plate last night. I ................... (do) the washing-up when it ................... (slip) out of my hand. Tom ................... (take) a photograph of me while I ................... (not/look). We ................... (not/go) out because it ................... (rain). What ................... (you/do) at this time yesterday? I ................... (see) Carol at the party. She ................... (wear) a really beautiful dress. Tom’s father (teach).............. him how to drive when he was 17. Tom ................... (not/shave) this morning because he ................... (not/have) time. We ................... (not/eat) anything because we ................... (not/be) hungry. I ................... (not/rush) because I ................... (not/be) in a hurry. She ................... (not/be) interested in the book because she ................... (not/understand) it Martha ................... (watch) TV at seven o’clock last night. What ...................you ................... (do) at one o’clock this afternoon? Henry ................... (eat) a snack at midnight last night. He ................... (eat) dinner at 7 P.M Last night. Somebody ................... (hit) him on the head while he ................... (go) to his car. He ................... (read) newspaper while his wife ................... (prepare) the dinner in the kitchen. Jose ................... (write) a letter to his family when his pencil ................... (break). IV. The differences between simple past and present perfect: Present perfect Simple past 1. Hành động đã xảy ra không biết rõ thời gian: I have visited New York twice. 2. Hỏi về thời gian quá khứ dùng kèm với since when, how long : - Since when have you started school? Bắt đầu một tình huống: - Have you met Tom recently? Yes, I have. 4. Dùng kèm for: Hành động đã xảy ra và còn lưu lại trong hiện tại:      John has lived in that house for 20 years. (He still lives there.) 5. Dùng kèm since trong mệnh đề chính: He has played tennis since he was 11. 1. Hành động đã xảy ra biết rõ thời gian - I visited New York last Winter. 2. Hỏi về thời gian quá khứ dùng kèm với when, how long ago: - When did you started school? Tiếp tục tình huống đó: - When did you meet him? Three days ago. 4. Dùng kèm với for: Hành động đã xảy ra và hoàn toàn kết thúc trong quá khứ:     John lived in that house for 20 years. Then hen moved to a new one.  5. Dùng kèm since trong mệnh đề phụ: He has played tennis since he was 11. Use the simple past or the present perfect tense. Jill .......................... (buy) a new car two weeks ago. His hair is very short. He .......................... (have) a haircut. Last night I .......................... (arrive) home at half past twelve. I .......................... (have) a bath and then I .......................... (go) to bed. .......................... (you/visit) many museums when you were in Paris? My bicycle isn’t here anymore. Somebody .......................... (take) it? I .......................... They .......................... just (decide) to buy a new house. They .......................... (do) nothing since they .......................... (get) up. My brother .......................... (join) the army when he .......................... (be) 18. He .......................... (serve) in the army for 3 years and then .......................... (go) to university. My sister .......................... (finish) school in 1997 and .......................... (be) a student at the National University since then. I .......................... (not/eat) anything yesterday because I ......................... (not/feel) hungry. “Gone With the Wind” is the most interesting film we .......................... (see) recently. - A: You .......................... (see) Nam last Sunday? - B: Oh, no. I (not to see) him for many days now. - A: Since when .......................... you .......................... (learn) English? - B:I .......................... (learn) it since I .......................... (be) a girl of twelve. - A: .......................... you ever .......................... (be) to Ho Chi Minh City? - B: No, I ................. (not to be) there yet. But my parents ................... (be) there twice this year. - A: How long .......................... you .......................... (live) in this town? - B: I .......................... (live) in this town for ten years. - A :Have you some more rice? - B: No. Thanks. I .......................... (eat). - A: .......................... your hair look different. .......................... (you.have) a haircut? - B:Yes. - A: Did you hear about Ben? He .......................... (break) his leg. - B: Really? How .......................... (that/happen?). - A: He .......................... (fall) off a ladder. IV. The differences between present perfect and present perfect progrssive: Present perfect Present perfect progrssive Hành động chấm dứt ở hiện tại do đó có kết quả rỏ rệt . I have waited for you for half an hour (now I stop waiting) Hành động tiếp tục tiếp diễn ở hiện tại do vậy không có kết quả rõ rệt I have been waiting for you for half an hour. (and continue waiting hoping that you will come) Ñi vôùi caùc haønh ñoäng coù tính lieân tuïc, keát hôïp vôùi Since, For live (soáng), learn (hoïc), stay (ôû laïi), wait for (chôø ñôïi), play (chôi), watch (xem), walk (ñi boä), drive (laùi xe) …. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense. (In some cases either could be used.) The students (work) very well this term. I only (hear) from him twice since he went away. I (hear) from her regularly. She is a very good correspondent. I (grease) my car. That's why my hands are so dirty. I (polish) this table all the morning and she isn't satisfied with it yet. I (work) for him for ten years and he never once (say) 'Good morning' to me. He (teach) in this school for five years. I (teach) hundreds of students but I never (meet) such a hopeless class as this. Why you (be) so long in the garage? ~ The tyres were flat; I (pump) them up. I (pump) up three tyres. Would you like to do the fourth? I (look) for mushrooms but I (not find) any. He (cough) a lot lately. He ought to give up smoking. You (hear) the news? Tom and Ann are engaged! ~That's not new; I (know) it for ages! I (try) to finish this letter for the last half-hour. I wish you'd go away or stop talking. ~ I hardly (say) anything. The driver of that car (sound) his horn for the last ten minutes. It (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the match (be) postponed. He (hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not dare) to ask for it yet. Mr Smith, you (whisper) to the student on your right for the last five minutes. You (help) him with his exam paper or he (help) you? Why you (make) such a horrible noise? ~ I (lose) my key and I (try) to wake my wife by throwing stones at he window. ~ You (throw) stones at the wrong window. You live next door. IV. The differences between simple past and past perfect: Simple past Past perfect Hành động xảy ra sau trong 2 hành động trong quá khứ . BEFORE/ BY THE TIME/ UNTILL+ S +V2. Dùng trong mệnh đề (if – type 2, wish- type 2, if only, as if, as though) diễn tả sự trái ngược sự thật trong hiện tại. Hành động xảy ra trước trong 2 hành động trong quá khứ . THAT/ AFTER/ AS SOON AS + S + HAD + V3. Dùng trong mệnh đề (if – type 3, wish- type 3, if only, as if, as though) diễn tả sự trái ngược sự thật trong quá khứ. 1.S + HAD +V3 + WHEN/BEFORE/ BY THE TIME/ UNTILL+ S +V2. 2. S + V2 + WHEN/ THAT/ AFTER/ AS SOON AS + S + HAD + V3. 3. S + HAD + NO SOONER + V3 + THEN + S +V2. 4. S + HAD + HARDLY + V3 + WHEN + S + V2. - He had already gone before I arrived. (A trước B) - They went to bet just after they had finished it. (A sau B). - When I came there, he had just left an hour before. - He said that he had already given it to her. - He had no sooner opened the door, the dog ran out. (Ngay khi A thì B). = No sooner had he opened the door, the dog ran out Put the verb into the correct form, past perfect (I had done) or simple past (I did). The house was very quiet when I got home. Everybody ......................... (go) to bed. My best friend, Kevin, was no longer there. He .......................... (go) away. The local cinema was no longer open. It .......................... (close) down. Mr Johnson was no longer alive. He .......................... (die). I felt very tired when I got home, so I ......................... (go) straight to bed. Sorry I’m late. The car ......................... (break) down on my way here. There was a car by the side of the road. It ......................... (break) down and the driver was trying to repair it. So we ......................... (stop) to see if we could help. I didn’t recognise Mrs Johnson. She .......................... (change) a lot. Bill no longer had his car. he .......................... (sell) it. If I .......................... (be) you, I .......................... never .......................... (tell) him. He talks as if he .......................... (know) the truth. If ,onlly my friends .......................... (come) here now.

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