Developing the export-Oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Da Nang City

Government: understanding the market, the needs of investors, building content for professional offerings, professional marketing; create opportunities to attract investment capital from all economic sectors through various forms of investment cooperation; FDI, P.P.P (sources from FDI, private sector, proposals for ODA creation).

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ernment: There are policies and solutions to attract FDI and private capital, proving the attractiveness of the locality. Implementing subjects: grasp capital standards according to export EP structure and technology scale to be invested. b2, Development of production areas for the industry. Due to the scale, there are large area requirements. Industrial zones (IZ) that meet international and national standards must be built for industrial development (IZ land area, percentage of workshops and filling areas, and development of industrial clusters and inter-regions). On the government side, there is a planning policy to locate IZs that meet the standards; incentives, support for land rent, reduction of land taxes and other support tools. On the implementation side, grasp the requirements of the production-business area and IZ standards to invest appropriately. c, Group of policies and measures to boost exports for the city's export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry c1, There are export-oriented policies and solutions thanks to the development of competitiveness of export electronic products. Developing competitiveness based on added value in production (focusing on increasing labor productivity); thanks to competitive advantage (export infrastructure, labor advantage, improving the quality of EP exports, business environment: clear administrative procedures, online public services). c2, Group of policies and solutions on market development and export of electronic products. Export market forecast; Supporting businesses with market information and trade promotion; Encouraging the promotion of EP exports; Financial policies to encourage inputs and outputs for the industry; Branding for businesses and EP exports; Facilitating the development of industry associations; Promoting exports based on the development of modern export methods. 1.2.2.3 Organization of implementation for the development policy of the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of the city a, Implementation process. Draft, send to consultation by scientists, enterprises, agencies, associations; implement structure and reorganize the system of industry entities; Estimate the budget; Inspect and supervise the implementation process, adjust supplements and support. b, Implementation method. Administration, trade fairs, exhibitions, advertising, investment promotion, direct invitations, ordering, propaganda with specialized e-commerce websites, social networks, using non-governmental organizations. 1.2.3 Criteria for evaluating the development of an export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry in a city 1.2.3.1 Group of criteria reflecting the development of the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry in width a, Production value of a city is electronic product manufacturing industry. This is the total production value of the export electronic product manufacturing industry (Gross Output - GO), reflecting the growth or recession of the industry in absolute quantities. b, Growth rate of city’s electronic product manufacturing industry (according to production value or export turnover) Continuous growth=Production and EX value in year i-Production and EX value in year (i-1)Original gross production and EX value (or periodically) x 100% n-1 Production and EX value in year n Average growth rate (%) = x 100% Production and EX value in the original year c, Proportion of the production value of city’s electronic product manufacturing industry Proportion of production value of EX electronic product manufacturing industry=Implementation value of the EX electronic product manufacturing industry in year iGross production value of industry in year i X 100% d, Target of export of electronic products EX of electronic products=Quantity of exported electronic products x (Prices of exported electronic products) e, The proportion (structure) of the production and export value of each export electronics item, or group of industries The proportion of production or EX value of electronic products i=Production or EX value of electronic products iProduction or export value of the EX electronic product manufacturing industry X 100% g, The proportion (structure) of export market of electronic products Proportion of EX market i=EX turnover of electronic products in the market iEX turnover of the export electronic product manufacturing industry X 100% 1.2.3.2 Group of criteria reflecting the development of export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry in depth a, Quality of export electronic products. The assessment is based on meeting the demands of physically growing markets (according to standards and licenses regulated by the EP import market). b, Added value in industry development. This is determined by the policy of increasing labor productivity, reflecting the level of science and technology, labor productivity and competitiveness of electronic products. c, Criteria to evaluate the performance of the industry c1, Production efficiency of the the export electronic product manufacturing industry. c2. Efficiency of using investment capital of the industry. d, Criteria for evaluating industry technology level. Follow Circular 04/2014/TT-BKHCN, April 08, 2015 of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment on guidelines for evaluating the production technology level, in which there is: T (Technoware) criteria on technological equipment and machinery; (H- Humanware) human resource criteria; I (Infoware) criteria for information; O (Orgaware) criteria for managing organizations. 1.2.3.3 Group of criteria to evaluate the development and implementation of policies for a city's export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry 1> Evaluation of policy and strategy making. Focus on SWOT analysis: (Strengths (S); Weakness (W); Opportunities (O); Threats (T)). 2> Evaluate goals. Evaluate performance against expected goals. 3> Evaluate according to the forecasting approach such as: Position prediction; Forecasting of resources; Predictive agent. 4> Evaluated according to 6 criteria: Economic; Effectiveness; validity; affect; feasibility and relevance. 1.2.4. A number of fundamental factors affecting the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of a city 1.2.4.1 Objective factors a, Demand for importing electronic products around the world. The increase in demand for electronic products is proportional to the increasing population size and the global production-business scale. b, Regulation of the country importing electronic products. There are non-tariff barriers. There will be many difficulties when the electronic products produced do not meet the requirements of the chain and regulations on licenses, packaging, product safety and the environment of the consumer market. c, Competition between countries producing and exporting electronic products. All countries in the world have priority strategies and policies to focus on developing this field. By 2018, there were 241 countries and territories worldwide producing and exporting electronic products to the world market. d, Choice of foreign investors. Investors have the right to compare and select the offers of cities based on their immediate or long-term goals and business strategies. e, Factors in the role of non-governmental organizations. These organizations are professional and therefore have a great influence on the development of the industry. 1.2.4.2 Subjective factors a, Factors belong to the role of a nation. Macro policies show localities the best choices for the industry development orientation. b, Factors belong to the role of local governments. Demonstrating the concretization of strategies, policies and measures to be implemented for localities (quality, depth as well as width of concretization). c, Factors relating to the role of export-oriented electronic product manufacturing enterprises. Demonstrated by the perception of benefits, their large participation in the industry will create opportunities for development of production forces for the industry. 1.3 EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING THE EXPORT-ORIENTED ELECTRONIC PRODUCT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF SOME CITIES IN THE COUNTRY AND ABROAD AND LESSONS LEARNED FOR DA NANG CITY 1.3.1 Experience in developing the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of some localities (provinces or cities) in the country and abroad. Lesson learned by: Shenzhen City, China; Pasir Gudang city in Malaysia; BangKok city, Thailand; Thai Nguyen city, Vietnam. 1.3.2 Reasonable lesson for success and note for Danang City. Lesson for success: the government must have policies to develop the industry in stages, export EP, production model, technology, SI must have a clear orientation based on the appreciation of the potential and advantages of the localality. It should be noted, there is a lack of strategies and policies on: setting goals for industry development; support for the private enterprises sector; catch technology; synchronous policy for industry development: SI, linking production areas, symbiotic and complementary factors. CHAPTER 2 CURRENT SITUATION OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXPORT-ORIENTED ELECTRONIC PRODUCT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF DA NANG CITY 2.1 OVERVIEW AND CURRENT SITUATION OF THE EXPORT-ORIENTED ELECTRONIC PRODUCT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF DA NANG CITY PERIOD OF 2013-2018 2.1.1 Comparative advantages of Da Nang city in developing export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry 2.1.1.1 Strategic position. Da Nang City is situted in Central VN, with a natural area of 128,543hectares,and a population density of: 828 people/ km2; it belongs to the East-West Economic Corridor. 2.1.1.2. Infrastructure. Having the largest commercial port and airport in Central VN and Central Highlands VN. The water and electricity supply is sufficient for the industrial zones in the city. There are administrative agencies servicimg of import and exports, and there are a number of symbiotic development factors (tourism, shopping, convalescence). 2.1.1.3 Human resource training facility. Da Nang city is one of three major education and training centers in VN, have EI training and export facilities 2.1.1.4 Resources.There are the necessary resources for the construction of industrial zones (IZ) and high-tech zones. 2.1.1.5 Investment environment. Da Nang City currently has 6 industrial zones in operation with a total planning area of 192,400m2, a high-tech zone and a concentrated information industrial zone, public services are quite developed. 2.1.2 The disadvantages of Da Nang City to develop of export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry Danang is far away from large industrial areas, and so the mobilization of a number of factors to support production will increase costs. Production area is limited. Regarding infrastructure, there are faults in the planning of goods transport network. Regarding the population, at the average level, skilled and technical requirements are not met. There is a lack of training institutions, research students, training high quality human resources specialized in the field of the electronics industry; Lack of primary or complementary materials, lack of supportive technology and regional integration. Regarding the investment environment, there is a lack of symbiotic factor in industrial zones and administrative products. 2.1.3 Analyzing the current situation of development of the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Danang city in the period of 2013-2018 2.1.3.1 Overview of the development process of the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Danang City From 2000-2003, FDI enterprises invested in the EOEPMI. From 2003-2008: mainly outsourcing for foreign corporations. 2.1.3.2 Analyzing the current situation of development results of the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Da Nang city in the period of 2013-2018 a, In terms of industrial production value (GO). In 2013-2014, GO decreased, then increased to 2018 (VND 12.23 trillion). Compared with (GO) of the same industry in the same period: 42.9-134.7 trillion and (GO) of the common industry of DN city (36.1-61.6 trillion VND), the contribution of the sector in DN City is quite modest. (Trillion dong) (Source: Statistics in Table 2.2) Figure 2.1 (GO) Value of the export electronic product manufacturing industry in Danang City b, In terms of growth rate. This is un stable because they are all outsourced or assembled to foreign enterprises or parent companies, with small and medium scale in the group's production chain system, their production is passive. However, the average growth of the industry is 51.72% / year, increasing rapidly compared to some other industries with a high average growth rate, leading the processing industry of the city. c, In terms of proportion. The average proportion is 9.89% compared to the value of the whole industry (the whole country is 6.45%), showing that this value is a fairly good position in the overall industrial production of the city. d, In terms of export turnover of electronic products. This increased steadily from 0.24 billion USD in 2013 to 0.59 billion USD in 2018, reaching the top 3 key export items (export electronic products, textiles, and seafood). However, the industry export turnover only accounts for 0.74-0.67% and accounts for 0.18 to 0.22% of the country's total export turnover (2013-2018), showing that the industry scale is not commensurate with the potential of the 3rd largest industrial city. e, In terms of export growth rate, the average growth rate over 6 years was: 17,85% (in 2016, the speed decreased) where are the whole country was 13.36%, a good increase, but mostly of FDI Enterprises. g, Proportion (structure) of production and export value of each export electronics item. Mainly: computers, phones, camcorders, and accessories. Only meet for specific companies with narrow structure, have to deal with a lot of competitiveness, no EP to wait after 2025. h, The proportion (structure) of the EP export market. The market share is still very modest, focusing mainly on the Japanese market (16.4%), many other markets are left out. 2.2. ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE SITUATION OF POLICIES AND SOLUTIONS FOR DEVELOPING THE EXPORT- ORIENTTED ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OF DA NANG CITY IN THE PERIOD OF 2013-2018 2.2.1 Overview of Danang City's export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry planning and development process (Period: Exploration (1975-2003); Preparation (2003-2013); Promotion (2013-2020). Table 2.3 Production value and average growth rate of the electronic product manufacturing industry in Danang City Unit: Trillion VND No. Indicator 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Average rate 2013-2018 (%/year) THE WHOLE INDUSTRY OF DA NANG CITY 36,116 41,143 42,678 46,187 50,248 61,600 11.38 1 Mining industry 287 502 424 413 495 521,23 16.34 2 Processing and manufacturing industry 34,540 39,382 40,830 44,141 47,949 51,353 8.292 In which: Electronics industry 3,025 2,429 3,432 3,775 4,579 12,23 51.72 (Source: Da Nang Department of Industry and Trade) 2.2.2 Analysis of the current situation of the results of policies and solutions to develop the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Da Nang city in the period of 2013-2018 From 2004-2014, the Government and the Ministry of Industry issued a number of general guiding documents on industrial development and EI as well as a strategy to boost exports for the whole country with a number of objectives and solutions (no specific guidance and direction for the EOEPMI industry of DN city). 2.2.2.1 Regarding policy groups and solutions to develop manufacturing and producing areas for the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Da Nang city. a, On development of the structure of key export electronic products. There is a project for developing the city is science and technology from 2016-2020. As a result, there is EP export: electronic components, computers suitable to the needs and trends in the world market with EP to welcome after 2025. Subjective reasons: lack of policies and solutions to orient export structure of EP according to the production model. b, Regarding the development of a key export electronic product production model for the industry of Da Nang City. Decision No.9644/QD-UBND, dated December 31, 2014, approving the scheme: Enterprise development of DN city to 2020. Solutions: Improving the investment environment, restructuring and technological innovation. The result: is in the processing stage to support some small and medium-sized corporations. Subjective reasons: rationale of choosing production models in the industry value chain. c, Regarding the development of science and technology qualifications for the industry. Decision No. 6211/QD-UBND, August 18, 2010 approving the Master Plan for development of science and technology of DN City until 2020. Results: General technology level: Partially improved, the total value of the industry's fixed assets accounted for about 4.1% in the whole industry, increased on average 38.6%/year, lower than the average rate in the whole industry. Limitations: the current technology of the industry is that of FDI investors, only meeting the type of supporting processing, without source technology, and has not yet transferred alternative production technologies and supporting industry technology to achieve its position in the second phase of the production model in the second country in the industry value chain (in theory). The basic reason is: lack of systematic reasoning regarding advanced manufacturing models for the industry. d, Regarding the development of supporting industries and symbiotic factorsfor the industry. Decision No. 34/2016/QD-UBND, November 01, 2016, creates a premise for the development of supporting industries for local industries. Solution: support projects for the development of supporting industry in general (not only the export electronics manufacturing industry). Result: no policy of production model has been established, so supporting industries for the export electronics manufacturing industry have not been formed. e, Regarding the development of high quality human resources for the industry. There are guidelines for training talents for the city. Decision No. 2159/QD - UBND dated March 31, 2010 approves the planning for development of the education and training sector in DN city until 2020. Results: Regarding the number of employees and the training level in the industry: only meets the processing support, manufacturing and assembling of some electronic products for export to foreign corporations. Regarding working age, occupational health, labor discipline, skills and skills, efficiency and productivity: does not meet the immediate or long-term requirements. Cause: training does not meet the needs of the industry. 2.2.2.2. Regarding policy group, solutions to develop production scale for the export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry of Da Nang city a, Regarding the development of the capital scale for the city's EOEPMI. The city government has the policy: quickly increasing the amount of investment capital attracted to the industry, the rate of capital mobilization in GRDP (according to the current price) will reach about 50% by 2020. Limitations: there is no mechanism to help and explain; spreading investment, there is no specific target program for the export electronics manufacturing industry. Cause: the attraction of policies to attract capital. b, Regarding the land area development planning for EOEPMI of DN City. Promulgate preferential policies to attract foreign direct investment (FDI), measures: granting investment licenses, preferential land rent rates, reducing corporate income tax. Industrial promotion policy; DN City Development Master Plan to 2020 with a vision to 2030 and 2045. Result: planning the IZs, creating necessary ground area. Big difficulty: the city land bank is limited. Reason: the master plan and determination of land standards for the industry have not been clearly oriented with any industry. 2.2.2.3 Regarding the group of policies and measures to boost exports for the city's export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry a,Group of policies and solutions toward export thanks to the development of competitiveness of export electronic products. In terms of added value (VA), since 2014, the government has built a scheme to improve the competitiveness of exported goods; Solutions: focus on supporting key and key export products; Results: VA of the industry failed. This limitation is the consequence of the lack of policies to develop production models, SI. Regarding the development of competitiveness thanks to the competitive advantage of infrastructure for export: the system of seaports, airways, railways, roads, accommodation and tourism has been renovated and developed. Restrictions on container lines have become untouched and the East-West corridor has not been exploited. Regarding the competitive advantage of labor price in the industry: By 2018, the labor price in the industry of DN city was the 3rd largest in the country after Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, but the 11th lowest in Asia, the average salary increases, is beneficial So. Regarding the improvement of the quality of export electronic products: this is meeting the quality requirements of some EP import markets but there have been passive, few initiatives, improvements, R&D. Regarding the development of the business environment: well implementing the administrative procedures and national single-window mechanism well, online public service policies, customs procedures, electronic C/O issuance, banking services, transportation, forwarding, logistics; Limitations: methods of guidance, deployment, products and services are not abundant, logistics is developing slowly and costs are still high. b, Regarding the development of the market and boosting exports of electronic products. Regarding policies on market forecasts: more than 80% of enterprises in the industry still don't know the information. Policies to support enterprises in market information and trade promotion for the industry: Since 2014, there has been a policy to support the implementation of trade promotion programs; Results: many conferences, forums and seminars have been organized to promote investment attraction in the field of electronics industry; Limitations: not yet specialized in the field of export electronic product manufacturing, the number of participants is quite small. Regarding policies to encourage the export of electronic products: from 2013-2018, more than 11 policies related to support for businesses have been issued; Limitations: the support solution is not large enough, large scale and not synchronized. Regarding import incentive policies for technological machinery, equipment for export electronic product manufacturing: Decision No. 34/2016/QD-UBND, November 01, 2016: machinery and equipment for import electronic product manufacturing complies with the regime of import-export or export-processing or temporary import or re-export (most of the import tax rate is 0%); Limitations: lack of a system of industry-oriented standards for producing modern electronic products to enjoy preferences. Regarding credit policies to encourage import and output export: Decision No. 36/2013/QD-UBND, November 13, 2013, supporting interest rates for investment loans, importing equipment, machinery, raw materials and fuels for export production; Limitations: not yet favorable and sustainable, the mechanism to remove obstacles. Regarding policies to promote exports based on branding for businesses and export electronic products: there is the city trade promotion program, period 2016-2020. Limitations: The city's own electronic product brand has not yet been established. Regarding facilitating associations for the development of electronic product manufacturing industry: VEIA's existence in DN city is its pervasive power, the ability to advise and provide industry development information. Regarding promoting exports based on the development of modern export methods: limitations: specific solutions to develop the industry in terms of foreign trade techniques are limited, the capacity of import and export officials is also limited. 2.2.3 Assessing the results of policies to develop Da Nang's export-oriented electronic product manufacturing industry in the period of 2013-2018 2.2.3.1 Evaluation of policy making. 2013-2018, more than 20 series of guiding documents were issued, and by 2015, EOEPMI b

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